Glossary to the Westminster Confession

Explanations of all archaic and uncommon words, usages, and expressions, in the order in which they occur.

Title    Confession. n. Public statement of religious beliefs.

1.1    Providence. n. Divine care.   Manifest. v. Show.   Are they. idiom. They are.   Unto. prep. With regard to.   Sundry. adj. Separate.   Divers. adj. Various.   Propagating. part. Spreading.   Establishment. n. Stabilization.   Comfort. n. Fortification.   Corruption. n. Impurity, badness.   Malice. n. Evil intent.   The same. i.e. This revelation of things necessary for salvation.

1.3    Canon. n. Standard list.

1.5    Induced. v. Persuaded.   Esteem. n. Respect.   Efficacy. n. Effectiveness.   Consent. n. Agreement.   Scope. n. Aim, purpose.   Glory. n. Praise, credit.   Discovery. n. Display.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Whereby. adv. By which.   Evidence. v. Show.   Notwithstanding. adv. Nevertheless.   Bearing witness. idiom. Testifying.

1.6    Counsel. n. Plan and advice.   Expressly. adv. Plainly.   Good and necessary consequence. idiom. Valid and compelling logic.   Illumination. n. Ability to see.   Ordered. v. Arranged.   By the light of. idiom. According to known facts of.   Prudence. n. Wisdom in practical things.   Observed. v. Kept to, followed.

1.7    Propounded. v. Set forth.   Opened. v. Explained.   Learned. adj. Educated.   In a due use of the ordinary means. idiom. By taking enough advantage of the help commonly given in the ministry of the Word.

1.8    Immediately. adv. Directly.   Singular. adj. Special.   Providence. n. Divine care.   Authentical. adj. Authoritative.   Interest. n. Stake.   Vulgar. adj. Common.   Patience. n. Perseverance.   Comfort. n. Encouragement.

1.9    Manifold. adj. Numerous and varied.   Searched. v. Investigated.

1.10    Private spirits. idiom. Spirits from which a charismatic may claim to have received private revelations.

2.1    Immutable. adj. Unchanging.   Immense. adj. Unlimited by space, everywhere present.   Holy. adj. Separate and pure.   Free. adj. Able to do whatever he pleases.   Absolute. adj. Unlimited by any defining quality or attribute.   Counsel. n. Deliberate plan.   Long-suffering. adj. Very patient with his creatures.   Truth. n. Faithfulness to his word.   Iniquity. Theol. term. Inward wickedness, moral depravity.   Transgression. Theol. term. Violation of God's law.   Sin. Theol. term. Any deviation from perfect righteousness.   Terrible. adj. Terrifying.

2.2    Glory. n. Praiseworthiness, credit, splendor.   Blessedness. n. fitness to be blessed, well spoken of.   Manifesting. part. Showing.   Fountain. n. Source.   Being. n. Reality, existence.   To whom. idiom. For whom.   Sovereign. adj. Supreme and unlimited.   Dominion. n. Lordship, mastery.   Upon them. idiom. Against them.   Open. adj. Exposed.   Manifest. adj. Obvious.   Independent upon the creature. i.e. Not dependent upon any creature for information.   Contingent. adj. Accidental.   Counsels. n. Deliberate plans.

2.3    Godhead. n. Divinity.   Persons. n. Personalities.   Substance. n. Essence.   Eternity. n. Timeless existence.   Eternally begotten. Theol. idiom. Begotten not at some time but timelessly, in such a way that he has always existed. This is a paradox. (1)   Eternally proceeding. Theol. idiom. Going forth timelessly.

3.1    From all eternity. Theol. idiom. Before and above all time.   Counsel. n. Plan.   Freely. adv. Independently.   Ordain. v. Bring about by command or decree, predestinate.   Author. n. Inventor.   Violence offered to. idiom. Sheer force applied against.   Liberty. n. Ability to act according to inherent or natural tendencies.   Contingency. n. Accidental nature. (2)   Second causes. idiom. Secondary agents, things involved in any intermediate chain of events.   Established. v. Confirmed, fully recognized.

3.3    Manifestation. n. Display.   Predestinated. v. Appointed beforehand.   Foreordained. v. Appointed beforehand.

3.4    Particularly. adv. Specifically.   Designed. v. Designated.

3.5    Immutable. adj. Unchangeable.   Counsel. n. Plan.   Good Pleasure. idiom. Preference.   Glory. n. Heavenly estate, spiritual perfection and exaltation.

3.6    Thereunto. adv. Towards it.   Wherefore. adv. & conj. And so.   Elected. v. Chosen.   Redeemed. v. Purchased back.   Effectually. adv. Effectively, powerfully. See chap. 10.   In due season. idiom. At the appointed time.   Justified. v. Counted as righteous. See chap. 11.   Sanctified. v. Spiritually reformed. See chap. 13.

3.7    Was pleased. v. Preferred, saw fit.   Unsearchable. adj. Mysterious.   Counsel. n. Plan.

3.8    Prudence. n. Practical wisdom, discretion.   Attending. v. Paying attention to.   Thereunto. adv. To it.   Vocation. n. Calling.   Afford. v. Produce, provide.   Matter. n. Subject matter, i.e. thoughts and words.

4.1    Therein. adv. In it.

4.2    Endued. v. Endowed, supplied.

5.1    Uphold. v. Maintain.   Dispose. v. Arrange.   Providence. n. Divine care.

5.2    First cause. idiom. Primary or underlying cause.   Fall out. idiom. Happen as an end result.   Second causes. idiom. Secondary or intermediate causes in a chain of events.   Necessarily. adv. As a necessary natural consequence.   Freely. adv. By the will of a creature acting according to its own inclinations.   Contingently. adv. By chance or accident.(1)

5.3    Means. n. Things which serve intermediately to accomplish a purpose.   Against. prep. Contrary to the nature of.

5.4    It extendeth itself. idiom. It applies.   Bare. adj. Mere.   Bounding. part. Compulsion and restriction.   Manifold. adj. Complex.   Dispensation. n. Management of things.   Ends. n. Purposes.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Proceedeth. v. Comes.

5.5    Season. n. Period of time.   Manifold. adj. Many and various.   Chastise. v. Punish for correction.   Discover. v. Show.   Sundry. adj. Various.

5.6    Wrought. v. Worked.   Objects. n. Obstacles.   Withal. adv. Moreover.

5.7    Reach to. idiom. Encompass, include.   Disposeth. v. Arranges.   Thereof. adv. Of it.

6.1    Subtilty. n. Craftiness.   Was pleased. idiom. Preferred.   Counsel. n. Plan.   Purposed. v. Planned.   Order. v. Arrange.

6.2    Communion. n. Fellowship.   Dead in sin. idiom. Subject to the deadly effects of sin.   Defiled. v. Made foul or impure.   Faculties. n. Capabilities.

6.3    Imputed. v. Attributed.   Conveyed. v. Passed on.   Posterity. n. Descendants.   Ordinary generation. idiom. Sexual reproduction.

6.4    Whereby. adv. By which.   Indisposed. v. Disinclined.   Transgressions. Theol. term. Violations of God's law.

6.5    Regenerated. v. Born again.   Mortified. v. Deadened, weakened.   Motions. n. Impulses.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Properly. adv. Correctly called.   Sin. Theol. term. Any deviation from perfect righteousness.

6.6    Thereunto. adv. To it.   Whereby. adv. For which.   Bound over. idiom. Sentenced, committed.   Temporal. adj. Earthly, temporary.

7.1    Fruition. n. Enjoyment.   Condescension. n. Gracious accommodation to inferiors.   Been pleased. idiom. Preferred.   Express. v. Exhibit.   By way of. idiom. In the form of   Covenant. Theol. term. Contractual agreement.

7.2    Life. Theol. term. Eternal life.   Wherein. adv. In which.   In him. idiom. Through him.   Posterity. n. Descendants.

7.3    Was pleased. idiom. Saw fit.   Wherein. adv. In which.   Ordained. v. Appointed.

7.4    Therein. adv. In it.   Testator. n. One making a testament.   Bequeathed. v. Given by testament.

7.5    Paschal. adj. Passover.   Types. n. Foreshadowings.   Ordinances. n. Prescribed practices.   Fore-signifying. v. Pointing to.   Sufficient. adj. Enough.   Efficacious. adj. Effective.   Operation. n. Working.   Messiah. n. Christ.   Remission. n. Forgiveness.

7.6    Substance. n. Essential or basic thing which may be exhibited in superficially different forms.   Dispensed. v. Administratively applied.   Sacraments. n. Sacred symbolic ordinances. See chap. 27.   Held forth. idiom. Exhibited.   Evidence. n. Clearness.   Efficacy. n. Effectiveness.   Various. adj. Different.   Dispensations. n. Administrative arrangements.

8.1    Ordain. v. Designate.   From all eternity. Theol. idiom. Before and above all time.   Seed. n. Offspring.

8.2    Very. adj. True.   Substance. n. Essential quality or nature.   Fulness of time. idiom. Appointed time.   Infirmities. n. Weaknesses.   Godhead. n. Godhood, divinity.   Manhood. n. Humanity.   Conversion. n. Change of quality or nature.   Composition. n. Combination of different substances resulting in one composite substance.   Confusion. n. Mixture, blending.   Which person. idiom. The aforesaid person.

8.3    Sanctified. v. Set apart for the service of God.   Anointed. v. Consecrated to office.   Above measure. idiom. In an infinitely great manner.   Harmless. adj. Innocent.   Furnished. v. Equipped.   Execute. v. Perform.   Office. n. Function.   Surety. n. One who is legally liable for payment of another's debt.   Thereunto. adv. To it.   Judgment. n. Judicial office and authority.   Into his hand. idiom. Under his control.   Gave him commandment. idiom. Commanded him.   Execute the same. i.e. Perform the duties of that judicial office.

8.4    Discharge. v. Perform the duties of.   Made. v. Made to be.   Immediately. adv. Directly, closely.   Saw. v. experienced.   Making intercession. idiom. Intervening on behalf of his people.

8.6    Wrought. v. Accomplished.   Incarnation. n. Coming in the flesh.   Virtue. n. Power.   Efficacy. n. Effectiveness.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Communicated. v. imparted.   Successively. adv. One after another.   Types. n. Foreshadowings.   Wherein. adv. In which.   Seed. n. Descendant.   Bruise. v. Crush.   Slain from the beginning of the world. i.e. Slain before all time in the decree of God. See Rev. 13:8 in the KJV.

8.7    Is proper. idiom. Pertains.   Denominated by. idiom. Called by the title which pertains to.

8.8    Effectually. adv. Unfailingly.   Apply. v. Attribute.   Communicate. v. Impart.   The same. i.e. That redemption.   Mysteries. n. Hidden profound truths.   Consonant to. adj. Consistent with.   Wonderful. adj. Awesome.   Unsearchable. adj. Incomprehensible.   Dispensation. n. Management of things.

9.1    Endued. v. Endowed, supplied.   That is neither. i.e. That it is neither.   Determined to. idiom. Limited to.

9.2    Mutably. adv. Changeably.

9.3    Ability of will to. idiom. Will-power for the doing of.   Natural man. Theol. idiom. Unregenerate man, one not born again.   Averse. adj. Turned away.   Dead in sin. Theol. idiom. Under the deadly effects of sin.   Thereunto. adv. For it.

9.4    Translates. v. Transfers.   State of grace. Theol. idiom. Condition of favor with God.

9.5    Immutably. adv. Unchangeably.   To good. i.e. To do good.   State of glory. Theol. idiom. Final perfection in heaven.

10.1    Life. Theol. term. Eternal life.   Accepted. part. Favored.   Effectually. adv. Effectively.   Determining. v. Directing.

10.2    From. prep. Because of.   Passive. adj. Inactive.   Therein. adv. In it.   Quickened. part. Made alive.   Thereby. adv. By this.   Embrace. v. Receive heartily.   Grace. n. Gift.   Conveyed. v. Given.

10.4    Common. adj. Indiscriminate.   Operations. n. Workings.   Be they never so. idiom. No matter how much they are.   Frame. v. Regulate.   Maintain. v. Defend by argument.   Pernicious. adj. Ruinous.   Detested. v. Denounced.

11.1    Justifieth. v. Declares to be righteous.   Infusing. v. Instilling.   Accepting their persons. idiom. Accepting them with favoritism.   Wrought. v. Done.   Imputing. v. Reckoning.   Evangelical obedience. Theol. idiom. Obedience to commands given in the New Testament.   Satisfaction. n. Satisfactory performance or compensation.   Of themselves. idiom. By their own efforts.

11.2    Alone. adj. One and only.   Instrument. n. Means.   Graces. n. Gifts.

11.3    Discharge. v. Pay.   Proper. adj. Fitting, suitable.   Inasmuch as. idiom. Because.   Stead. n. Place.   Glorified. v. Made glorious, praise-worthy.

11.4    From all eternity. idiom. Before and above all time.   In the fulness of time. idiom. When the time had finally come.   In due time. idiom. At the appointed time.   Apply. v. Join.

11.5    Countenance. n. Favor.

12.1    Vouchsafeth. v. Guarantees.   Taken into the number of. idiom. Counted as, reckoned as.   Chastened. v. Punished.   Sealed to. idiom. Guaranteed.   Inherit the promises. idiom. Receive the things promised.

13.1    Sanctified. v. Made holy.   Virtue. n. Power.   The whole body of sin. Theol. idiom. The sinful personality conceived as a complex organism of sins. See Calvin on Romans 6:6, 14.   Quickened. v. Made alive.   Graces. n. Gifts of godliness.

13.2    Abideth. v. Remains.   Whence. adv. From which.

13.3    Saints. n. Sanctified ones.

14.1    Grace. n. Gift.   Whereby. adv. By which.   Wrought. v. Worked.   The ministry of the Word. idiom. Preaching and teaching.

14.2    Whatsoever. n. Anything and everything that.   Therein. adv. In it.   Acteth differently upon. idiom. Reacts appropriately to.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Yielding. v. Giving.   By virtue of. idiom. As an effect of.

14.3    Author. n. Original source.

15.1    Repentance. n. Turning from sin.   Evangelical grace. idiom. A gift bestowed to believers under the gospel dispensation of the covenant of grace.   Whereof. adv. Of which.

15.2    Odiousness. n. Hatefulness.   Apprehension. n. Perception.   Such as are. idiom. Those who are.   Penitent. adj. Repentant.   Purposing. part. Resolving.

15.3    Be not. idiom. Is not.   Rested in. idiom. Depended upon.   Satisfaction. n. Compensation.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Is it. idiom. It is.

15.4    But it deserves. i.e. That it does not deserve.

15.5    General repentance. i.e. Blanket declaration of repentance.   Particularly. adv. Specifically, one by one.

15.6    Bound. part. Duty-bound.   Thereof. adv. Of them.   Scandalizeth. v. Offends.   Thereupon. adv. Immediately after that.   And in love to receive him. i.e. And to welcome him with a loving spirit.

16.1    Such as. idiom. Those which.   Warrant. n. Authentication, proof.   Thereof. adv. From it.

16.2    Fruits. n. Profitable results.   Lively. adj. Living.   Manifest. v. Show.   Adorn. v. Beautify.   Thereunto. adv. For them.   End. n. End result.

16.3    Of themselves. idiom. In their own power.   Thereunto. adv. To this.   Graces. n. Enabling gifts.   Of his good pleasure. idiom. What is well-pleasing to him.   Are they. idiom. They are.   Hereupon. adv. Because of this.   Bound. part. Required.   Motion. n. Prompting.   Stirring up. idiom. Rousing, awakening.

16.4    Supererogate. v. perform above and beyond the call of duty.   As that. idiom. That.

16.5    At the hand of. idiom. In return from.   Profit. v. Be of help.   Satisfy. v. Compensate.   Wrought. v. Done.

16.6    Notwithstanding. conj. Never-theless.   The persons of believers being accepted. idiom. Because believers are treated with favoritism.

16.7    For the matter of them. idiom. Objectively.   Use. n. Advantage, profit.   End. n. Purpose.   Meet. adj. Fit, worthy.

17.1    State of grace. Theol. idiom. Condition of favor with God.   Persevere. v. Persist, continue.   Therein. adv. In it.

17.2    Free-will. Theol. idiom. Will-power. See chap. 9.4.   Immutability. n. Unchangeability.   Merit. n. Claim to due reward.   Intercession. n. Intervention.   Abiding. part. Remaining, dwelling.   From all which ariseth also. i.e. All of which also bring about.   Thereof. adv. Of it.

17.3    Grievous. adj. Burdensome.   Therein. adv. In them.   Whereby. adv. By which.   Incur. v. Bring upon themselves.   Grieve. v. Cause sorrow to.   Graces. n. God-given abilities.   Comforts. n. Defenses.   Scandalize. v. Cause offense to.   Temporal. adj. Earthly, temporary.

18.1    Carnal. adj. Unspiritual, uninspired.   Estate. n. State, condition.   Which hope of theirs shall perish. i.e. Their hope of which shall be dashed.   Such as. idiom. Those who.   In sincerity. idiom. Sincerely.   Walk ... before him. idiom. Behave themselves as in his presence.   State of grace. Theol. idiom. Condition of favor with God.   Hope of the glory of God. i.e. Hope of the glory promised by God.   Which hope. i.e. The hope of which.   Make them ashamed. i.e. Disappoint them.

18.2    Conjectural. adj. Theoretical.   Persuasion. n. Opinion.   Assurance. n. Certainty.   Graces. n. Gifts of holiness.   Unto which. idiom. For which.   Witnessing. v. Testifying.   Which Spirit. i.e. The Spirit of which.   Earnest. n. Pledge, advance deposit.   Sealed to. idiom. Certified for, made secure for, guaranteed.

18.3    But that a true believer may. i.e. That a true believer may not.   Be partaker of it. i.e. Shares in it.   In the right use of ordinary means. idiom. By rightly taking advantage of the help commonly given in the ministry of the Word.   Thereunto. adv. To it.   Give all diligence. idiom. Strive diligently.   Thereby. adv. By means of this.   Proper fruits of. i.e. Natural results and rewards pertaining to.   Looseness. n. Relaxation of morals.

18.4    Divers. adj. Different.   Intermitted. v. Interrupted.   Vehement. adj. Forceful.   Countenance. n. Favor.   Suffering. v. Allowing.   Such as. idiom. Those who.   Are they. i.e. They are.   Destitute. adj. Deprived.   Conscience. n. Consciousness.   Operation. n. Working.   In due time. idiom. At the appointed time.   By the which. idiom. By means of which.   Supported from. i.e. Kept from.

19.1    Posterity. n. Descendants.   Endued. v. Endowed, supplied.

19.3    Was pleased. idiom. Saw fit.   Under age. idiom. Immature.   Typical. adj. Foreshadowing.   Ordinances. n. Prescribed practices.   Prefiguring. v. Foreshadowing.   Graces. n. Qualities of holiness.   Divers. adj. Different.   Abrogated. part. Repealed.

19.4    A body politic. idiom. A politically organized society of people.   Sundry. adj. Various.   Expired. v. Came to an end.   State. n. Political organization.   Obliging. part. Binding upon.   Equity. n. Fairness.   Thereof. adv. Pertaining to them.

19.5    Thereof. adv. Of it.   In regard of. idiom. By reason of.   In respect of. idiom. By reason of.   Dissolve. v. Loosen.

19.6    Be not. i.e. Are not.   Thereby. adv. By means of it.   Discovering. part. Revealing.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Approbation. n. Approval.

19.7    Sweetly. adv. Nicely.

20.1    Yielding. part. Giving.   Common to. idiom. Shared by.   Communications. n. Impartations.   Partake of. idiom. Take part in.

20.2    Beside. prep. Aside from, in addition to.   Betray. v. Treacherously abandon.   Implicit faith. Theol. idiom. Complete trust in the word or authority of Church officers (according to Roman Catholic doctrine).

20.3    Cherish. v. Cling to.   Thereby. adv. By this.   End. n. Purpose.

20.4    Power. n. Authority of officers.   Mutually. adv. Reciprocally, in turn.   Conversation. n. Conduct.   Power of godliness. idiom. Natural impulse and spirit of piety.   Censures. n. See chap. 30.   Civil Magistrate. i.e. Government.

21.1    Lordship. n. Mastery, dominion.   Sovereignty. n. Supreme and unlimited power.   Instituted. v. Set up.   Devices. n. Inventions.

21.2    In. prep. By.

21.5    Fear. n. Reverence.   Sound. adj. Healthy, orthodox.   Conscionable. adj. Conscientious, dutiful.   With grace in the heart. i.e. With the God-given ability to sing praise from the heart. See Colossians 3:16.   Administration. n. Management.   Sacraments instituted by Christ. i.e. Baptism and the Lord's supper. See chap. 27.   Ordinary. adj. Regular.   Oaths, vows. See chap. 22.   Solemn. adj. Formal, serious.   Several occasions. i.e. Various occasions (many editions read special occasions).   Used. v. Practiced.   In an holy and religious manner. i.e. In a devout and solemn manner (that is, without revelry on public occasions of thanksgiving).

21.6    In secret. idiom. Privately.   Solemnly. adv. Formally.   By his Word or providence. i.e. By statements of Scripture or by providential guidance of wisdom and prudence. See the proof texts, and the first half of the next paragraph.

21.7    Of the law of nature. idiom. According to natural reason and prudence.   Positive. adj. Definitely imposed.   Moral. i.e. Not merely ceremonial.   Perpetual. adj. Everlasting.

21.8    Ordering. part. Arranging.   Common affairs. idiom. Usual business.   Taken up. idiom. Occupied.   Exercises. n. Self-improving activities.

22.1    Lawful. adj. Legal.   Just. adj. Proper.   Swearing. part. Taking an oath.   Solemnly. adv. Formally.   Asserteth. v. says.

22.2    Name of God. idiom. Any name or title of God.   Therein. adv. In this.   Vainly. adv. Without serious or sincere purpose, lightly, falsely.   Dreadful. adj. Rightly feared.   Abhorred. v. Shunned with fear or disgust.   Weight and moment. idiom. Importance and consequence.   Warranted. part. Authorized.   Imposed. v. Required as mandatory.

22.3    Whosoever. pron. Whoever.   Weightiness. n. Importance.   Therein. adv. In it.   Avouch. v. Declare or assert positively and as a matter of fact.   But. prep. & conj. Except.   Is fully persuaded. idiom. Firmly believes.   Touching. part. Concerning.   Being imposed. i.e. When it is required as mandatory.

22.4    Equivocation. n. Insincerely taking advantage of different definitions or interpretations of the words.   Infidels. n. Unbelievers, persons who are obviously not Christians.

22.5    Vow. n. A sworn promise to God.   Is of the like nature with. i.e. Is essentially the same as.   Promissory oath. idiom. Oath of promise.   The like. idiom. The same.

22.6    Creature. esp. The virgin Mary, or any other of the "saints" so honored by Roman Catholics.   Conscience. n. Consciousness.   In way of. idiom. Out of.   Fitly conduce thereunto. i.e. Appropriately serve the purpose.

22.7    Therein. adv. In it.   Whereof. adv. Of which.   In which respect. idiom. For this reason.   Popish. adj. Roman Catholic.   Regular obedience. idiom. Obedience to monastic rules and customs.   So far from being ... that they are. idiom. Not only not . . but they are even.   Snares. n. Traps.

23.1    Ordained. v. Appointed.   Civil magistrates. idiom. Political authorities, esp. kings.   To this end. idiom. For this purpose.   Armed them with the power of the sword. i.e. Authorized them to use deadly force.

23.2    Lawful. adj. Permitted by God's law.   Execute. v. Perform all the duties pertaining to.   Thereunto. adv. To do it.   Whereof. adv. Of which.   Maintain. v. Defend.   Wholesome. adj. Beneficial.   Commonwealth. n. Realm, state, politically organized community.   Upon just and necessary occasion. idiom. When it is necessary and right.

23.3    The civil magistrate. i.e. The king.   Assume to himself. idiom. Take upon himself, as if it belonged to him.   Administration. n. Management.   The power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Theol. idiom. The power to admit, exclude or expel members of the Church. See chap. 30.   Take order. idiom. Arrange matters.   Entire. adj. Without subtractions.   Blasphemies. n. Insults to God.   Suppressed. v. Restrained with civil punishments.   Ordinances. n. Prescribed practices.   Duly. adv. Appropriately.   Settled. v. Established, instituted.   Administered. v. Managed.   Observed. v. Obeyed.   Effecting. part. Accomplishing.   Whereof. adv. Of which.   Synods. n. Church councils.   Provide that. idiom. Arrange things in advance so that.   Whatsoever. pron. Whatever.   Transacted. v. Finally done.

23.4    People. i.e. The people.   Honor their persons. idiom. Honor them because of who they are.   Tribute. n. Taxes.   Dues. n. Fees, tolls, tariffs, etc.   For conscience' sake. idiom. For the sake of a clear conscience, in recognition of the fact that to do otherwise would be a sin.   Infidelity. n. Unbelief.   Dominions. n. Kingdoms.

24.1    Lawful. adj. Permitted by God.

24.2    Ordained. v. Instituted.   Mutual. adj. Reciprocal.   Issue. n. Offspring.   Seed. n. Offspring.   Uncleanness. n. Debasing sexual desire and activity, fornication.

24.3    Judgment. n. Discretion.   Marry ... in the Lord. idiom. Marry other Christians.   Such as. idiom. Those who.   The true reformed religion. idiom. Protestant principles.   Infidels. n. Unbelievers.   Papists. n. Roman Catholics.   Idolaters. n. Worshippers of idols, of false gods and goddesses.   Maintain. v. Hold to.   Damnable heresies. idiom. Sectarian opinions which deserve to be condemned.

24.4    Consanguinity. n. Blood-relation.   Affinity. n. Relation of "in-laws" through marriage.   Parties. n. The persons involved.   Kindred. n. Relatives.

24.5    Fornication. n. Sexual intercourse outside of marriage.   Contract. n. Engagement to marry.   Giveth just occasion to. idiom. Lawfully entitles.   Dissolve. v, Annul, cancel.   Sue out. idiom. Pursue and obtain by a lawsuit.

24.6    Be such as is apt. i.e. Is such that it leads them.   Study. v. Apply the mind to devise.   Put asunder. idiom. Separate.   Remedied. v. Corrected.   Cause sufficient of. i.e. Sufficient cause for.   Wherein. adv. In which.   Observed. v. Kept to, followed.   Discretion. n. Private judgment.

25.1    Thereof. adv. Of it.   The fulness of him that filleth all in all. i.e. The completion (or, fullest expression) of him who himself completes all things everywhere. See commentators on Ephesians 1:23.

25.2    No ordinary possibility. i.e. Ordinarily no possibility.

25.3    Oracles. n. Sayings, words.   Perfecting. part. Progressive training in holiness.   Effectual. adj. Effective.   Thereunto. adv. For this purpose.

25.4    Thereof. adv. Of it.   Embraced. v. Received heartily.   Ordinances. n. Practices prescribed by God, esp. the Lord's Supper, Baptism, and Church discipline.

25.5    Synagogues of Satan. i.e. Assemblies under the power of Satan. For the expression see Revelation 2:9.

25.6    Thereof. adv. Of it.   Antichrist. n. Principal enemy of Christ. See 1 John 2:18.   Man of sin. i.e. Most sinful of all men. See 2 Thes. 2:3.   Son of perdition. i.e. One who is doomed to destruction in hell. See 2 Thes. 2:3.   All that is called God. i.e. Against all others that are called gods. See 2 Thes. 2:3.

26.1    Have fellowship. idiom. Share as partners.   Graces. n. Virtuous qualities, such as humility, self-control, kindness, etc.   Have communion. idiom. Share freely.   Conduce. v. Tend.   Mutual good. i.e. Common welfare.   Inward and outward man. idiom. Soul and body.

26.2    By profession. i.e. By professing to believe the chief articles of the faith, esp. as declared in the Apostles' Creed.   Bound. v. Obligated.   Holy fellowship and communion. i.e. Sacred partnership and sharing. Compare the words of the Creed, "I believe in ... the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints."   Mutual edification. i.e. Improvement together in godliness.   Relieving. part. Helping.   Outward things. idiom. Things pertaining to the body, material things.   Several. adj. Various.   Which. i.e. And this.   Extended. v. Offered far and wide.

26.3    Communion. n. Sharing.   Wise. n. Way.   Substance. n. Essence.   Affirm. v. State.   Impious. adj. Irreverent.   Blasphemous. adj. Insulting to God.   Infringe. v. Impair, weaken.   Title. n. Just and recognized claim to exclusive ownership.   Propriety. n. Personal right of property.   Goods. n. Movable property.   Possessions. n. Things owned or occupied, esp. real estate.

27.1    Seals. n. Certifications, guarantees.   Covenant of grace. See chap. 7.   Immediately. adv. Directly.   Interest. n. Participation, part.   Engage them. i.e. Put them under obligation with a pledge.

27.2    Whence. adv. From which.

27.3    Exhibited. v. Shown.   Conferred. v. Given.   Efficacy. n. Effectiveness.   Piety. n. Godliness.   Word of institution. Theol. idiom. The words spoken by Christ when he instituted the ordinance of the Lord's Supper. See Mat. 26:26-8 and parallels.   Precept. n. Command.   Thereof. adv. Of it.

27.4    There be. idiom. There are.   Ordained. v. Authorized.   In the gospel. Theol. idiom. In the New Testament.   Thereby signified and exhibited. i.e. Represented and shown by them.   For substance. idiom. Essentially, basically (although exhibited in superficially different forms).   The same with. idiom. The same as.

28.1    Solemn. adj. Formal.   Party. n. Participating person.   Visible Church. See chap. 25 2.   Seal. n. Certification, guarantee.   Covenant of Grace. See chap. 7.   Ingrafting into Christ. Theol. idiom. Being put into a state of vital union with Christ. See John 15:5.   Regeneration. n. Rebirth.   Remission. n. Forgiveness.   Giving up. idiom. Yielding, submitting. See Romans 6:13.   Which. i.e. And this.   Appointment. n. Stipulation, specific command.

28.2    Outward. adj. Material.   Wherewith. adv. With which.   In the name of. idiom. Calling upon the authority of.   Called thereunto. i.e. Ordained.

28.4    Profess. v. Formally declare.

28.5    It be. idiom. It is.   Contemn. v. Show disrespect for.   Annexed. part. Joined.   As that. idiom. So that.   Regenerated. v. Caused to be born again.   Saved. Theol. term. Preserved forever in the state of grace.

28.6    Efficacy. n. Effectiveness.   Wherein. adv. In which.   Notwithstanding. conj. Nevertheless.   Grace. n. Gift.   Exhibited. v. Displayed.   Conferred. v. Given.   To such as. idiom. To whomever.   Belongeth. v. Properly pertains.   Counsel. n. Deliberate plan.

28.7    But. adv. Only.

29.1    Wherein. adv. In which.   Instituted. v. Established, set up.   Observed. v. Obeyed as a regular ceremony or custom.   Perpetual. adj. Everlasting.   Sealing. part. Certifying of.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Engagement in and to. i.e. Involvement in and pledging of themselves to.   Bond and pledge. idiom. Binding promise.   Communion. n. Close union, full cooperation.   Mystical. adj. Sacred and mysterious.

29.2    Offered up. idiom. Offered in sacrifice.   Remission. n. Forgiveness.   Quick. adj. Living.   Commemoration. n. Ceremonial occasion for remembrance.   A spiritual oblation of all possible praise. i.e. A spiritual sacrifice of praise, in which men ought to offer all the praise that is in them. Compare Hebrews 13:15. The prayer of thanks (Gr. "eucharistia") of the Lord's Supper is the spiritual sacrifice offered in it.   For the same. i.e. For Christ's one sacrifice.   Popish. adj. Roman Catholic.   Abominably. adv. Hatefully.   Injurious. adj. Offensive, insulting.   One only. idiom. One and only.   Alone. adj. One and only.   Propitiation. n. Atoning sacrifice.

29.3    Word of institution. Theol. idiom. The words spoken by Christ when he instituted the ordinance of the Lord's Supper. See Mat. 26:26-8 and parallels.   Thereby. adv. By this.   Common. adj. Ordinary.   Communicating. part. Partaking.   Communicants. n. Partakers.   But to none who are not then present in the congregation. i.e. But they are not to take the elements out to the homes of people who are absent from the meeting.

29.4    The denial of the cup to the people. i.e. Distributing the bread to all, but allowing only priests and monks to partake of the wine. This was common practice in the Roman Catholic church at the time of the Reformation.   Lifting them up. i.e. The Roman Catholic "elevation of the host," in which the priest holds the bread up as a sacrifice to God.   Reserving. part. Saving.   Pretended religious use. i.e. Superstitious practices (as when the bread is used as a good luck charm).   Institution of Christ. i.e. Christ's words of institution for the ordinance.

29.5    Outward. adj. Material, physical.   Duly. adv. Appropriately.   Ordained. v. Authorized.   Have such relation to him crucified, as that. i.e. Are related to his death on the cross in such a way that.   Truly. adv. Rightly.   Sacramentally. In a mysterious and spiritual manner.   To wit. idiom. Namely.   Albeit. conj. Even though.   Substance. n. Material, matter.   Nature. n. Inherent quality.

29.6    Maintains. v. Asserts.   By consecration of a priest. i.e. By the ceremony used by a priest when he sanctifies the elements.   Repugnant. adj. Utterly contrary.   Overthroweth the nature of the sacrament. i.e. Destroys the spiritual nature and meaning of the sacrament.   Manifold. adj. Many and various.   Gross. adj. Flagrant.   Idolatries. n. Worshipping of idols (i.e. in the Roman Catholic mass, when the priest bows and the people kneel to the bread).

29.7    Carnally. adv. In a mere physical and unspiritual way.   Corporally. adv. Corporeally, bodily.   Not corporally or carnally in, with, or under. i.e. Not physically present in the manner proposed by Lutheran doctrine (in which the bread and wine are thought to contain the substance of the physical body and blood of Christ, much as a sponge contains water).   Yet as really. i.e. Although just as truly.

29.8    Ignorant. adj. Unenlightened, uninstructed.   Thereby. adv. By it.   Thereunto. adv. To it.   Guilty of. idiom. Liable to punishment for a violation of.   To their own damnation. idiom. With the result that they bring judgment upon themselves.   Wherefore. conj. For this reason.   Communion. n. Fellowship.   Remain such. i.e. Remain unenlightened or ungodly.   Mysteries. n. Sacred and mysterious things.   Be admitted thereunto. i.e. Be allowed to participate in them.

30.1    Therein. adv. In it.   In the hand of. idiom. Under the administration of.   Distinct. adj. Separate.   The civil magistrate. idiom. The civil government of the land.

30.2    Keys of the kingdom. Theol. idiom. See Mat 16:19.   Committed. v. Entrusted.   By virtue whereof. idiom. By authority of which.   Respectively to retain and remit sins. i.e. To require repentance for or to forgive sins, as appropriate in each case.   Impenitent. adj. Unrepentant.   By the Word. i.e. By preaching God's judgment against sin.   Censures. n. Official reprimands and punishments.   Penitent. adj. Repentant.   Absolution from censures. idiom. Release from penalties or burdens imposed by censure.

30.3    Reclaiming. part. Rehabilitation, correction.   Gaining. part. Winning over. See Mat 18:15 in the KJV.   The like. idiom. Similar.   Purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump. idiom. Cleaning out of sinfulness which might infect the whole congregation. For the metaphor of unleavened bread see 1 Cor. 5:6-7.   Vindicating the honor. idiom. Defending the good name.   Profession. n. Testimony.   Suffer. v. Allow.   Seals. n. Certifying sacraments. See chap. 27.   Thereof. adv. Of it.   Profaned. v. Desecrated, defiled.   Obstinate. adj. Stubborn, unrelenting.

30.4    Ends. n. Purposes.   Proceed by. idiom. Go through the steps of.   Admonition. n. Warning.   Season. n. Length of time.   Excommunication. n. Expulsion.   Demerit. n. Degree of merit.

31.1    Edification. n. Building up, spiritual improvement.

31.2    Magistrates. n. Political rulers.   Fit. adj. Qualified.   Of themselves. idiom. By themselves.   By virtue of. idiom. By authority of.   Upon delegation. i.e. When they are sent as representatives.

31.3    It belongeth to. idiom. It is a proper function of.   Ministerially. adv. As a service or ministry to the Church.   Determine. v. Settle, decide.   Cases of conscience. idiom. Practical questions about what is most helpful to true godliness and to the peace of the Church.   Maladministration. n. Misgovernment of the Church.   Determine the same. i.e. Decide and act upon such cases.   Determinations. n. Decisions.   Consonant. adj. According.   Whereby. adv. By which.   An ordinance of God. idiom. A thing established and prescribed by God.   Appointed thereunto. i.e. Specifically given for this purpose.

31.4    General or particular. i.e. Involving the whole visible Church or only some part of it.   They are not. i.e. Their decisions are not absolutely.   Help. n. Helpful guide.

31.5    Ecclesiastical. adj. Directly related to the Church.   Intermeddle. v. Meddle, interfere.   Civil affairs. idiom. Political matters.   Commonwealth. n. State or nation.   For satisfaction of conscience. idiom. As an act of duty.   Thereunto required. i.e. Required to do this.

32.1    See corruption. idiom. Undergo decay.   Subsistence. n. Continuance, existence.   Gave them. i.e. Gave them to their bodies.   Reserved to. idiom. Kept in custody for.

32.2    Such as. idiom. Those who.

32.3    To dishonor. i.e. To be condemned in judgment.   Conformable. adj. Similar.

33.1    Wherein. adv. In which.   Judgment. n. Judicial authority.   Which. pron. That.   Apostate. adj. Unfaithful.   Tribunal. n. Judgment seat.   Receive. i.e. Receive in return.

33.2    End. n. Purpose.   Manifestation. n. Open display.   Reprobate. n. Rejected men.

33.3    Would have. idiom. Desires.   Shake off all carnal security. i.e. Rid themselves of the false sense of security which comes from worldly comforts.


1. The eternal generation of the Son referred to in chapter 2.3 was a doctrine required by the Council of Nicea (A.D. 325). The Nicene Creed in its original form concluded with the anathema: "But those who say, There was a time when he was not, and, He was made out of nothing, or, He is of another substance or essence, or, The Son of God is created or changeable or alterable--they are condemned by the holy catholic and apostolic Church." See Schaff's Creeds of Christendom, 6th edition (1931), volume I, pages 24-29.

2. The meaning of "contingently" and "contingency" in chapters 3.1 and 5.2 of the Confession has been by far the most difficult problem for me in making this glossary. At this time I must confess that the meaning is not clear to me. The usual meaning of the word, "by accident," obviously presents difficulties in the context of a theology which in principle excludes the idea of chance. The meaning of "contingent" in 2.2 is plain enough because there the reality of anything truly contingent is denied. But it is strange that after this the authors of the Confession proceed in 3.1 to speak of "contingency" as a quality of some "second causes" (3.1), and to assert further in 5.2 that some events occur "contingently" according to the very "nature of second causes." The Scripture proofs of these sections make reference to verses which speak of flying objects (dice, axhead, arrow) which God has used to accomplish his purpose.