Links updated May 2010
- bibelwissenschaft.de. Website of the German Bible Society. Full text of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.
- The Online Parallel Bible Project. By John Isett. A fast-loading site with full text of several Hebrew editions, pointed and unpointed.
- Mechon Mamre. A Jewish site that has the full text of the Hebrew Bible online in four editions in Hebrew (including one with cantillation marks), one in Aramaic (Targum Onqelos), one in English (the Jewish Publication Society translation of 1917), and one in parallel Hebrew and English (voweled Hebrew and JPS English). Also provides several ancient compilations of the Oral Law (Mishneh Torah, Mishnah, Tosefta, Yerushalmi and Bavli), and an encyclopedia of Torah basics (in English).
- Sifrut HaKodesh, an online Hebrew Bible with links to relevant references in Rabbinical literature, provided by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem through the Snunit program, Israel's main learning and teaching resource for children, parents, and educators. Also on the Snunit site are the Hebrew texts of the Targum Onkelos, Mishnah, Tosefta, Talmud Yerushalmi, and Mishneh Torah. (NOTE: There is no English here, only Hebrew.)
- The TanakhML Project. By Alain Verboomen in Brussels, Belgium. The complete Hebrew Bible online (including vowel points and cantillation marks), with a sophisticated concordance feature and a "verse structure analyser" (based on massoretic verse cantillation). Requires the SBL Hebrew font.
- Electronic Text of the Leningrad Codex. By Christopher V. Kimball in West Redding, CT. An elegantly formatted Hebrew Bible, displaying vowels and accents, based upon the Michigan-Claremont electronic text. Requires the SBL Hebrew font. Users can download the whole site in a zipped archive.
- Unicode Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), from the Internet Sacred Text Archive by J.B. Hare.
- The Book of Genesis, in accented and pointed Hebrew characters, from the Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia.
- The Aleppo Codex website. Pages of the Aleppo Codex online in digital photographs. Sponsored by the George S. Blumenthal Foundation.
- Complete Hebrew Bible (with vowel points) by Jeff A. Benner at his "Ancient Hebrew Research Center" site.
- Selected chapters of the Hebrew Bible. About a hundred chapters of the Hebrew Old Testament in mp3 audio files.
- Complete Hebrew Bible in mp3 files, hosted by Audio Scriptures International. These files must be played on site or purchased on CD. No download available.
- Complete Hebrew Bible in mp3 files, divided into chapters and hosted by Gary Martin at the University of Washington in Seattle. This is the same recording available at the Audio Scriptures International site, but divided up into chapters for downloading.
- Complete Hebrew Bible in mp3 files, divided into chapters, hosted by the Israeli Snunit Kodesh site. This also is the same recording available at the Audio Scriptures International site. The larger book files are also available here.
- Audio Hebrew Bible on CD. The Hebrew text narrated and recorded on four CD's by "Israel's premier Bible reader," Shlomo Bertonov. Produced by The Central Library for the Blind in Israel. This is a professional-quality narration. Also available for purchase here
- LOCAL The Hebrew Text of the Old Testament. Several introductory articles on the Hebrew text and the Hebrew language in general, with a biblography.
- Canon and text of the Old Testament, by Dr. Frants Buhl ... translated by Rev. John Macpherson (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1892).
- General Introduction to the Old Testament: the Text, by William Henry Green (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1899).
- The Old Testament Text and the New Testament Text. By Philip Comfort. A very good introduction to text-critical materials and methods. This is the first two chapters of Comfort's book, Essential Guide to Bible Versions.
- The Study of Textual Criticism. By Dr. Allen P. Ross at Beeson Divinity School. A good brief introduction to textual criticism of the Old Testament. See also the samples of textual criticism in his Samples of the Exegetical Procedures.
- The Dead Sea Scrolls and Biblical Integrity. by Garry K. Brantley, M.A., in the Reason & Revelation online Journal of Apologetics Press. A good article explaining the practical importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which have provided proof of the general reliability of the traditional text of the Old Testament.
- Scrolls From the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship. From the Library of Congress. Also here.
- The Great Isaiah Scroll. Images of all parts of the Great Isaiah Scroll from Qumran with translation and commentary, by Fred P Miller.
- The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls. From the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. “The five Dead Sea Scrolls that have been digitized thus far include the Great Isaiah Scroll, the Community Rule Scroll, the Commentary on Habakkuk Scroll, the Temple Scroll, and the War Scroll … All five scrolls can be magnified so that users may examine texts in exacting detail.”
- Variants of the Isaiah Scroll Adopted by the Revised Standard Version and the Jerusalem Bible. By Dr. Paul W. Peters of Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary.
- Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls. By F.F. Bruce (1956). A popular-level book about the significance of the Scrolls. Maintains that "in general the new discoveries have increased our respect for the Massoretic Hebrew text."
- West Semitic Research Project Educational Site. From the University of Southern California. A brief introduction to biblical manuscripts and ancient texts relating to the Old Testament.
- A Brief History of the Hebrew Bible. by Debra E. Anderson, at the Trinitarian Bible Society.
- Old and New in Textual Criticism: Similarities, Differences, and Prospects for Cooperation. By James R. Adair, Jr. A long article that compares and contrasts the methods usually employed by scholars in New Testament and Old Testament textual criticism. Also here.
- The Kimhi Family: The Emergence of Their Writings in the Reformation. By Gordon Laird (1999). Describes early editions of the Hebrew Bible and rabbinic commentaries used by Protestants in the Reformation era.
- Introduction to the Mikra'ot Gedolot (Rabbinic Bible). By Dr. Eliezer Segal at Calgary University in Canada.
- The Idea of the Sanctity of the Biblical Text and the Science of Textual Criticism. By Menachem Cohen, Professor of Bible, Bar-Ilan University. Also here.
- Oxford Hebrew Bible Project. Introduction and samples of a future Oxford edition of the Hebrew Bible, with extensive text-critical notes, under the general editorship of Ronald Hendel. The sample pages online provide some good examples of how textual criticism of the Old Testament is done.
- A Handbook to Old Testament Hebrew, containing an Elementary Grammar of the Language, by Samuel G. Green (3rd ed., London, 1921).
- Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford, 1907). Also here and here.
- Davidson’s ‘Analytic Hebrew Lexicon’ — Benjamin Davidson, The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon: Consisting of an Alphabetical Arrangement of Every Word and Inflection Contained in the Old Testament Scriptures, Precisely as they Occur in the Sacred Text, with A Grammatical Analysis of Each Word, and Lexicographical Illustration of the Meanings. A complete series of Hebrew and Chaldee Paradigms, with Grammatical Remarks and Explanations (London, Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1848).
- Robinson’s translation of Gesenius’ Hebrew Lexicon — A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament: Including the Biblical Chaldee, translated from the Latin of William Gesenius, by Edward Robinson. New Edition. (Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1844) also here and here.
- Josiah Gibbs’s translation of Gesenius’s Lexicon (1824, also here).
- Tregelles’s translation of Gesenius’ Hebrew Lexicon — Gesenius's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures; translated, with additions and corrections from the author's Thesaurus and Other Works, by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles (London: Bagster and Sons, 1893).
- German editions of Gesenius’ Hebrew Lexicon — Wilhelm Gesenius’ Hebräisches und chaldäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament, Neunte Auflage. Neu Bearbeitet von F. Mühlau und W. Volck (Leipzig: Vogel, 1883); Wilhelm Gesenius' hebräisches und aramäisches Hardwörterbuch über das Alte Testament, in Verbindung mit Prof. Dr. H. Zimmern, Bearbeitet von Dr. Frants Buhl. Vierzehnte Auflage (Leipzig: Vogel, 1905).
- Conant’s English translation of Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar — Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, seventeenth edition, with numerous corrections and additions, by Dr. E. Rödiger, translated by T.J. Conant, with Grammatical Exercises and a Chrestomathy, by the translator (New York: Appleton & Co., 1859). Cf. also the earlier editions of 1851 and 1856.
- Collins’s English translation of Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar — Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, as edited and enlarged by E. Kautzsch ... translated from the twenty-fifth German edition by the late Rev. G.W. Collins ... revised and adjusted to the twenty-sixth edition by A.E. Cowley (Oxford, 1898). See also the second edition (1910, “revised in accordance with the twenty-eighth German edition”) at wikisource.org.
- Gesenius-Kautzsch Hebrew Grammar, 28th edition (1909 also here); translated into English by Cowley (Oxford, 1910). This is really much more the work of Kautzsch than of Gesenius.
- Ewald's Introductory Hebrew Grammar, translated from the third German Edition by J. Frederick Smith (London: Asher & Co., 1870).
- The ‘Englishman’s Hebrew Concordance’ — The Englishman’s Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament; Being an Attempt at A Verbal Connection between the Original and the English Translation, edited by George V. Wigram (3rd ed. London: Bagster, 1866): vol. 1; vol. 2.
- Girdlestone’s ‘Synonyms of the Old Testament’ — Synonyms of the Old Testament; their Bearing on Christian Faith and Practice, by the Rev. Robert Baker Girdlestone, M.A. (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1871).
- The Study of Words and The Study of Syntax. By Dr. Allen P. Ross at Beeson Divinity School. A very helpful guide to Hebrew language resources and research methods, and a quick overview of Hebrew grammar.
- The Importance of Studying Hebrew. By Dr. Daniel Botkin. An article from Messianic Home magazine (Spring 1999) that discusses some untranslatable features of the Hebrew text.
- Ancient Hebrew Research Center. "Dedicated to teaching and promoting the study of the ancient Hebrew language, alphabet and culture in a manner that is both enjoyable and educational."
- Biblia Hebraica. Thirty-one interactive lessons containing notes and quizzes; Most lessons include a Hebrew to English/English to Hebrew vocabulary quiz. The quizzes are multiple choice and advance by themselves when the correct answer is selected.
- Hebrew for Christians. By John Parsons in Minneapolis, Minnesota. An attractive site that gives a brief introduction to the Hebrew language, with vocabulary, basic grammar, exercises, and other helps. Also presents some interesting "Messianic Jewish" material which illustrates traditional Jewish methods of handling Scripture.
- Learn Hebrew Verbs. By Jacob Richman. Three hundred Hebrew verbs fully conjugated.
- Consonants and Vowels In the Hebrew Script. By Helmut Richter.
- Hebrew script. By Simon Ager. A good presentation on the Hebrew alphabet, points, and styles of script on Ager's Omniglot site.
- Publications of David J.A. Clines, at the University of Sheffield. Many articles on Hebrew philology.
- Theological and Homiletical Introduction to the Old Testament, by Johann Peter Lange, translated by Tayler Lewis and A. Gosman. Moderately conservative.
- Davidson’s Introduction to the Old Testament — Samuel Davidson, An Introduction to the Old Testament, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, 1862): vol 1; vol. 2. Somewhat liberal for its time.
- Old Testament Exegesis. By Dr. Allen P. Ross at Beeson Divinity School. A series of long and interesting lectures at the seminary level. Includes lessons on the study of words, poetics, textual criticism, syntax, biblical theology, and practical exegetical exposition in the different genres of the Hebrew Bible. Some knowledge of Hebrew is required to fully understand the lessons, but students without Hebrew can follow most of it.
- The Bible History, Old Testament. By Alfred Edersheim. This older work (published 1890) is essentially a detailed survey of the Old Testament. Edersheim's treatment is conservative and devotional. Also here.
- Concise Old Testament Survey. By J. Hampton Keathley III. A good series of up-to-date notes and outlines (1998) from the Biblical Studies Foundation.
- Old Testament Book Studies. From the Biblical Studies Foundation. Large and detailed introductions, with outlines and bibliographies. See also the index page of studies by book.
- Old Testament Teacher's Guide. A series of outlines and other classroom handouts, provided by the Division of Student Ministry of the Baptist General Convention of Texas.
- The Origin and Permanent Value of the Old Testament. By Charles Foster Kent (1906). A higher critical approach.
- Introduction to the Old Testament. By John Edgar McFadyen (1905). A higher critical approach.
- Website of Dr. Emanuel Tov, Professor of Bible at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. On the site are many pdf files with full text of articles written by Tov.
- Lowth’s classic treatise on Hebrew Poetry — Lectures on the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews by Robert Lowth , D.D. Lord Biship of London, Translated from the original latin by George Gregory, F.A.S.; A New Edition with Notes by Calvin E. Stowe, A.M. (Andover: Crocker and Brewster, 1829).
- Herder’s ‘Spirit of Hebrew Poetry’ — The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, by J. G. Herder, translated from the German by James Marsh. 2 vols. (Burlington: Edward Smith, 1833); vol.1; vol. 2. Also at archive.org: vol. 1; vol. 2.
- The Spirit of the Hebrew Poetry. By Isaac Taylor (1861).
- Hebrew Cantillation Marks And Their Encoding. By Helmut Richter.
- Center for Advanced Judaic Studies Library Exhibits, from the University of Pennsylvania Library. Some very interesting and informative exhibits here. Rare books from the University of Pennsylvania Library are used as a springboard for discussions of the history of the Hebrew text and its interpetation. I note especially Jewish Biblical Interpretation in a Comparative Context by Seth Jerchower, Hebraica Veritas? (Christian Hebraism between 1450 and 1750) by Stephen Burnett and Seth Jerchower, and From Written to Printed Text: The Transmission of Jewish Tradition by Rebecca Kobrin and Adam Shear.
- Scientific Refutation of the Bible Codes. By Brendan McKay, Professor of Computer Science at the Australian National University. See his index page In Search of Mathematical Miracles for more information on the subject.
- What Does Almah Mean? By William F. Beck. A detailed scholarly article on Isaiah 7:14.
- The Immanuel Prophecy, by William Brooks. MA thesis submitted to Western Conservative Baptist Seminary (1993).
- The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. An online scholarly journal, with full text articles and book reviews. All of the material seems to be based on an historical-critical point of view.
- Rhetorical Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. By Michael Morrison.
- Early Hebrew Printing Homepage. By Michael Davidson, rare book collector in Ontario. "A Virtual Guide to the Great Jewish Libraries and Rare Book Collections On-line."
- Poetic Discourse. By Dr. Allen P. Ross at Beeson Divinity School. Describes the various literary features and forms of the Old Testament.
- Near Eastern Acrostics and Biblical Acrostics. By John F. Brug. An introduction to acrostics in the Hebrew Bible and their relationship to other ancient Near Eastern acrostics.
- Introduction to the Psalms. By Henry Wansbrough at Oxford University. This is an excellent book-length introduction to form criticism of the Psalms (and Hebrew poetry in general), by a notable Roman Catholic scholar. Wansbrough is a member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission and was the chief editor of the New Jerusalem Bible. See his site's index page for links to many other interesting essays and introductions. Some of these require a network password, but most are public. Unfortunately the approach is somewhat 'liberal' in places, but those who read with discretion will learn much.
- Hengstenberg's Christology of the Old Testament — Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament: And a Commentary on the Messianic Predictions, trans. by Theodore Meyer and James Martin. 3 vols. (edinburgh, 1854-8); vol. 1; vol. 2; vol. 3.
- Biblical Hebrew Mailing List (B-Hebrew). An ecumenical academic discussion list for the Hebrew Bible. Students and interested non-academics are welcome, but the list assumes a working knowledge of Hebrew.
"The Hebrew language is the best language of all ... If I were younger I would want to learn this language, because no one can really understand the Scriptures without it. For although the New Testament is written in Greek, it is full of Hebraisms and Hebrew expressions. It has therefore been aptly said that the Hebrews drink from the spring, the Greeks from the stream that flows from it, and the Latins from a downstream pool." --Martin Luther, Table Talk, quoted in Pinchas E. Lapide, Hebrew in the Church, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1984), p. x.
Listen to Genesis 1:1-5 in Hebrew
(Windows Media Player required)
בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ: והארץ היתה תהו ובהו וחשך על־פני תהום ורוח
אלהים מרחפת על־פני המים: ויאמר אלהים יהי אור ויהי אור: וירא אלהים את־האור כי־טוב
ויבדל אלהים בין האור ובין החשך: ויקרא אלהים לאור יום ולחשך קרא לילה ויהי־ערב
ויהי־בקר יום אחד: