Tyndale's version of the Epistle to the Romans

Tyndale 1535 Below is the Epistle to the Romans as translated and annotated by William Tyndale. The text is from his edition of 1534. I have left the original spelling, capitalization and punctuation unchanged, but I have replaced the printer's contractions with words fully spelled out. (Printers of the sixteenth century, in order to neatly justify their lines of type, often used the ampersand "&" for "and," elided "n" or "m" and put a line over the preceding letter to indicate the elision, and put the contractions yt and ye for "that" and "the.") The paragraphing here is Tyndale's. He included no verse numbers, because the verse numbers for the New Testament were not yet invented. I have omitted the cross-references and the notes that merely summarize the contents of the epistle, and have put all the explanatory marginal notes at the end of each chapter. —M.D.M.

The epistle of the Apostle S. Paul to the Romayns.


PAUL the seruaunt of Iesus Christ, called to be an Apostle, put a parte to preache the Gospell of God, which he promysed afore by his Prophetes, in the holy scriptures that make mension of his sonne, the which was begotten of the seed of David, as pertayninge to the flesshe: and declared to be the sonne of God with power of the holy goost that sanctifieth, sence the tyme that Iesus Christ oure Lorde rose agayne from deeth, by whom we have receaved grace and apostleshyppe, to bringe all maner hethen people vnto obedience of the fayth, that is in his name: of the which hethen are ye a part also, which are Iesus christes by vocacion.

To all you of Rome beloved of God and saynctes by callinge. Grace be with you and peace from God oure father, and from the Lorde Iesus Christ.

Fyrst verely I thanke my God thorow Iesus Christ for you all, because youre fayth is publisshed through out all the worlde. For God is my witnes, whom I serve with my sprete in the Gospell of his sonne, that with out ceasinge I make mencion of you alwayes in my prayers, besechinge that at one tyme or another, a prosperous iorney (by the will of god) myght fortune me, to come vnto you. For I longe to see you, that I myght bestowe amonge you some spirituall gyfte, to strength you with all: that is, that I myght have consolacion together with you, through the commen fayth, which bothe ye and I have.

I wolde that ye shuld knowe brethren, how that I have often tymes purposed to come vnto you (but have bene let hitherto) to have some frute amonge you, as I have amonge other of the Gentyls. For I am detter both to the Grekes and to them which are no Grekes, vnto the learned and also vnto the vnlearned. Lykewyse, as moche as in me is, I am redy to preache the Gospell to you of Rome also.

For I am not ashamed of the Gospell of Christ, because it is the power of God vnto salvacion to all that beleve, namely to the Iewe, and also to the gentyle. For by it the righteousnes which commeth of god, is opened, from fayth to fayth. [1] As it is written: The iust shall live by fayth.

For the wrath of God apereth from heven agaynst all vngodlynes and vnrighteousnes of men which withholde the trueth in vnrighteousnes: seynge, what maye be knowen of God, that same is manifest amonge them. For God dyd shewe it vnto them. So that his invisible thinges: that is to saye, his eternall power and godhed are vnderstonde and sene, by the workes from the creacion of the worlde. So that they are without excuse, in as moche as when they knewe god, they glorified him not as God, nether were thankfull, but wexed full of vanities in their imaginacions, and their folisshe hertes were blynded. [2] When they counted them selves wyse, they became foles and turned the glory of the immortall god, vnto the similitude of the ymage of mortall man, and of byrdes, and foure foted beastes, and of serpentes. Wherfore god lykewyse gave them vp vnto their hertes lustes, vnto vnclennes, to defyle their awne boddyes bitwene them selves: which tourned his truthe vnto a lye, and worshipped and served the creatures more then the maker, which is blessed for ever. Amen. For this cause god gave them vp vnto shamfull lustes. For even their wemen did chaunge the naturall vse vnto the vnnaturall. And lyke wyse also the men lefte the naturall vse of the woman, and brent in their lustes one on another. And man with man wrought filthynes, and receaved in them selves the rewarde of their erroure, as it was accordinge.

And as it semed not good vnto them to be aknowen of God, even so God delivered them vp vnto a leawde mynd, that they shuld do those thinges which were not comly, beinge full of all vnrighteous doinge, of fornicacion, wickednes, coveteousnes, maliciousnes, full of envie, morther, debate, disseyte, evill condicioned, whisperers, backbyters, haters of God, doers of wronge, proude, bosters, bringers vp of evyll thinges, disobedient to father and mother, with out vnderstondinge, covenaunte breakers, vnlovinge, trucebreakers and merciles. Which men though they knew the righteousnes of God, how that they which soche thinges commyt, are worthy of deeth, yet not only do the same, but also have pleasure in them that do them. [3]

1 From fayth to fayth: that is from a weake faith to a stronger, or from one batayle of fayth to another, for as we haue escaped one ieopardye thorow fayth, another inuadeth vs, thorow which we must wade by the helpe of fayth also.

2 What foloweth when men knowe the truthe and loue it not.

3 To haue pleasure in another mannes synne is greater wyckednes then to synne thy selfe.


THERFORE arte thou inexcusable o man, whosoever thou be that iudgest. For in the same wherin thou iudgest another, thou condemnest thy selfe. For thou that iudgest, doest even the same selfe thinges. But we are sure that the iudgement of God is accordinge to trueth, agaynst them which commit soche thinges. Thinkest thou this O thou man that iudgest them which do soche thinges and yet doest even the very same, that thou shalt escape the iudgement of God? Ether despisest thou the riches of his goodnes, pacience and longe sufferaunce? and remembrest not how that the kyndnes of God ledith thee to repentaunce?

But thou after thyne harde herte that cannot repent, heapest thee togedder the treasure of wrath agaynste the daye of vengeaunce, when shalbe openned the righteous iudgement of god, which will rewarde every man accordinge to his dedes: 1 that is to saye, prayse, honoure and immortalite, to them which continue in good doynge, and seke eternall lyfe. But vnto them that are rebellious and disobey the trueth, yet folowe iniquytie, shall come indignacion and wrath, tribulacion and anguysshe, vpon the soule of every man that doth evyll: of the Iewe fyrst, and also of the gentyll. To every man that doth good, shall come prayse, honoure and peace, to the Iewe fyrst, and also to the gentyll. For ther is no parcialyte with god. But whosoever hath synned with out lawe, shall perisshe with out lawe. And as many as haue synned vnder the lawe, shalbe iudged by the lawe. For before god they are not ryghteous which heare the lawe: but the doers 2 of the lawe shalbe iustified. For if the gentyls which have no lawe, do of nature the thynges contayned in the lawe: then they havynge no lawe, are a lawe vnto them selves, which shewe the dede of the lawe wrytten in their hertes: whyll their conscience beareth witnes vnto them, and also their thoughtes, accusynge one another or excusynge, at the daye when god shall iudge the secretes of men by Iesus Christ, accordinge to my Gospell.

Beholde, thou arte called a Iewe, and trustest in the lawe, and reioysist in God, and knowest his will, and hast experience of good and bad, in that thou arte informed by the lawe: and belevest that thou thy silfe arte a gyde vnto the blynde, a lyght to them which are in darcknes, an informer of them which lacke discrecion, a teacher of vnlearned, which hast the ensample of that which ought to be knowen, and of the truth, in the lawe. But thou which teachest another teachest not thy selfe. Thou preachest, a man shuld not steale: and yet thou stealest. Thou sayst, a man shuld not commit advoutry: and thou breakest wedlocke. Thou abhorrest ymages, and robbest God of his honoure. Thou reioysest in the lawe, and thorow breakinge the lawe dishonourest God. For the name of god is evyll spoken of amonge the Gentyls thorowe you, as it is written.

Circumcision 3 verely avayleth, if thou kepe the lawe. But if thou breake the lawe, thy circumcision is made vncircumcision. Therfore if the vncircumcised kepe the ryght thinges contayned in the lawe: shall not his vncircumcision be counted for circumcision? And shall not vncircumcision which is by nature (yf it kepe the lawe) iudge thee, which beynge vnder the letter and circumcision, dost transgresse the lawe? For he is not a Iewe, which is a Iewe out warde. Nether is that thynge circumcision, which is outwarde in the flesshe. But he is a Iewe which is hid wythin and the circumcision of the herte is the true circumcision, which is in the sprete, and not in the letter, whose prayse is not of men, but of god.

1 The deseruinge of Christ is promysed to be the rewarde of oure good dedes: which rewarde yet oure dedes deserue not.

2 Dedes are an outeward righteousnes before the worlde and testifie what a man is withinne: but iustifie not the hert before god: nor certifye the conscience that the fore-synnes are forgeuen.

3 Circumcision was a witnes of the couenaunt betwene them and god and holpe not but after as it put them in remembraunce to beleue in god and to kepe the lawe.


WHAT preferment then hath the Iewe? other what avauntageth circumcision? Surely very moche. Fyrst vnto them was committed the worde of God. What then though some of them did not beleve? shall their vnbeleve make the promes of god with out effecte? God forbid. Let god be true, and all men lyars, as it is written: That thou myghtest be iustifyed in thy sayinge and shuldest overcome when thou arte iudged.

Yf oure vnrighteousnes make the righteousnes of God more excellent: what shall we saye? Is God vnrighteous which taketh vengeaunce? I speake after the maner of men. God forbid. For how then shall God iudge the worlde? Yf the veritie of God appere moare excellent thorow my lye, vnto his prayse, why am I hence forth iudged as a synner? and saye not rather (as men evyll speake of vs, and as some affirme that we saye) let vs do evyll, that good maye come therof. Whose damnacion is iuste.

What saye we then? Are we better then they? No, in no wyse. For we have all ready proved how that both Iewes and Gentils are all vnder synne, as it is written: There is none righteous, no not one: There is none that vnderstondith, there is none that seketh after God, they are all gone out of the waye, they are all made vnprofytable, ther is none that doeth good, no not one. Their throte is an open sepulchre, with their tounges they have disceaved: the poyson of Aspes is vnder their lippes. Whose mouthes are full of coursynge and bitternes. Their fete are swyfte to sheed bloud. Destruccion and wretchednes are in their wayes. And the waye of peace they have not knowen. There is no feare of God before their eyes.

Yea and we knowe that whatsoever the lawe sayth, he sayth it to them which are vnder the lawe. That all mouthes maye be stopped and all the worlde be subdued to god, because that by the dedes of the lawe, shall no flesshe be iustified in the sight of God. For by the lawe commeth the knowledge of synne.

Now verely is the righteousnes that commeth of God declared without the fulfillinge of ye lawe, havinge witnes yet of the lawe and of the Prophetes. The righteousnes no dout which is good before God, commeth by the fayth of Iesus Christ, vnto all and vpon all that beleve.

Ther is no difference: for all have synned, and lacke the prayse that is of valoure before God: but are iustified frely by his grace, through the redemcion that is in Christ Iesu, whom God hath made a seate of mercy thorow faith in his bloud, to shewe the righteousnes which before him is of valoure, in that he forgeveth the synnes that are passed, which God dyd suffre to shewe at this tyme, the righteousnes that is alowed of him, that he myght be counted iuste, and a iustifiar of him which belevith on Iesus.

Where is then thy reioysinge? It is excluded. By what lawe? by the lawe of workes? Naye: but by the lawe of fayth.

For we suppose that a man is iustified by fayth without the dedes of the lawe. Is he the God of the Iewes only? Is he not also the God of the Gentyls? Yes, even of the Gentyles also. For it is God only which iustifieth circumcision which is of fayth, and vncircumcision thorow fayth. Do we then destroye the lawe thorow fayth? God forbid. But we rather mayntayne the lawe. 1

1 Fayth mayntayneth the lawe, because therby we obtayne power to loue it and to kepe it.


WHAT shall we saye then, that Abraham oure father as pertayninge to the flesshe, dyd finde? If Abraham were iustified by dedes, then hath he wherin to reioyce: but not with god. For what sayth the scripture? Abraham beleved god, and it was counted vnto him for righteousnes. To him that worketh, is the rewarde not reckened of favour: but of duty. To him that worketh not, but beleveth on him that iustifieth the vngodly, is his fayth counted for righteousnes. Even as David describeth the blessedfulnes of the man vnto whom god ascribeth righteousnes without dedes. Blessed are they, whose vnrighteousnes are forgeven, and whose synnes are covered. Blessed is that man to whom the Lorde imputeth not synne.

Came this blessednes then vpon the circumcised or vpon the vncircumcised? We saye verely how that fayth was rekened to Abraham for righteousnes. How was it rekened? in the tyme of circumcision? or in the tyme before he was circumcised? Not in tyme of circumcision: but when he was yet vncircumcised. And he receaved the signe of circumcision, as a seale of that righteousnes which is by fayth, which fayth he had yet beynge vncircumcised: that he shuld be the father of all them that beleve, though they be not circumcised, that righteousnes myght be imputed to them also: and that he myght be the father of the circumcised, not because they are circumcised only: but because they walke also in the steppes of that fayth that was in oure father Abraham before the tyme of circumcision.

For the promes that he shuld be the heyre of the worlde, was not geven to Abraham or to his seed thorow the lawe: but thorow the righteousnes which cometh of fayth. For yf they which are of the lawe, be heyres, then is fayth but vayne, and the promes of none effecte. Because the lawe causeth wrathe. For where no lawe is, there is no transgression. Therfore by fayth is the inheritaunce geven, that it myght come of faveour: and the promes myght be sure to all the seed. Not to them only which are of the lawe: but also to them which are of the fayth of Abraham, which is the father of vs all. As it is wrytten: I have made thee a father to many nacions, even before god whom thou hast beleved, which quyckeneth the deed, and called those thinges which be not, as though they were.

Which Abraham, contrary to hope, beleved in hope, that he shuld be the father of many nacions, accordynge to that which was spoken: So shall thy seed be. And he faynted not in the fayth, nor yet consydered hys awne body which was now deed, even when he was almost an hondred yeare olde: nether yet that Sara was past chyldeberinge. He stackered not at the promes of God thorow vnbelefe: but was made stronge in the fayth, and gave honour to God, full certifyed, that what he had promised that he was able to make good. And therfore was it reckened to him for righteousnes.

It is not written for him only, that it was reckened to him for righteousnes: but also for vs, to whom it shalbe counted for righteousnes, so we beleve on him that raysed vp Iesus oure Lorde from deeth. Which was delivered for oure synnes, and rose agayne forto iustifie vs.


BECAUSE therfore that we are iustified by fayth, we are at peace with god thorow oure Lorde Iesue Christ: by whom we have awaye in thorow fayth, vnto this grace wherin we stonde aud reioyce in hope of the prayse that shalbe geven of God. Nether do we so only: but also we reioyce in tribulacion. For we know that tribulacion bringeth pacience, pacience bringeth experience, experience bringeth hope. And hope maketh not ashamed, 1 for the love of God is sheed abrod in oure hertes, by the holy goost, which is geven vnto vs.

For when we were yet weake, accordynge to the tyme: Christ dyed for vs which were vngodly. Yet scace will eny man dye for a righteous man. Paraventure for a good man durst a man dye. But God setteth out his love that he hath to vs, seinge that whyll we were yet synners, Christ dyed for vs. Moche more then now (seynge we are iustifyed in his bloud) shall we be saved from wrath, thorow him.

For yf when we were enemyes, we were reconciled to God by the deeth of his sonne: moche more, seinge we are reconciled, we shal be preservid by his lyfe. Not only so, but we also ioye in God by the meanes of oure Lorde Iesus Christ, by whom we have receavyd the attonment.

Wherfore as by one man synne entred into the worlde, and deeth by the meanes of synne. And so deeth went over all men, in somoche that all men synned. For even vnto the tyme of the lawe was synne in the worlde: but synne was not regarded, as longe as ther was no lawe: neverthelesse deeth rayned from Adam to Moses, even over them also that synned not, with lyke transgression as dyd Adam: which is the similitude of him that is to come.

But the gyfte is not lyke as the synne. For yf thorow the synne of one, many be deed: moche more plenteous vpon many was the grace of God and gyfte by grace: which grace was geven by one man Iesus Christ. 2

And the gifte is not over one synne, as deeth cam thorow one synne of one that synned. For damnacion cam of one synne vnto condemnacion: but the gyft cam to iustify from many synnes. For yf by the synne of one, deeth raigned by the meanes of one, moche more shall they which receave aboundance of grace and of the gyfte of righteousnes raygne in lyfe by the meanes of one (that is to saye) Iesus Christ.

Lykewyse then as by the synne of one, condemnacion cam on all men: even so by the iustifyinge of one commeth the righteousnes that bringeth lyfe, vpon all men. For as by one mannes disobedience many be cam synners: so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

But the lawe 3 in the meane tyme entred in, that synne shuld encreace. Neverthelater where aboundaunce of synne was, there was more plenteousnes of grace. That as synne had raigned vnto deeth, even so might grace raygne thorow righteousnes vnto eternall lyfe, by the helpe of Iesu Christ.

1 We are not asshamed of oure hope for we are sure by the deathe of Christ that God loueth vs and will bringe oure hope to passe.

2 Adams disobedyence dampned vs all yer we oureselues wrought euell. And Christes obedience saueth vs all, yer we oure selues worke anye good.

3 The lawe encreaseth synne and maketh oure nature more gredie to do euell: because the lawe mynistreth no power ner lust to that she byddeth, or to refrayne from that she forbyddeth.


WHAT shall we saye then? Shall we continue in synne, that there maye be aboundaunce of grace? God forbyd. How shall we that are deed as touchynge synne, live eny lenger therin? Remember ye not that all we which are baptysed in the name of Iesu Christ, are baptysed to dye with him? We are buryed with him by baptim, for to dye, that lykewyse as Christ was raysed vp from deeth by the glorye of the father: even so we also shuld walke in a newe lyfe. For yf we be graft in deeth lyke vnto him: even so must we be in the resurreccion. This we must remember, that oure olde man is crucified with him also, that the body of synne myght vtterly be destroyed, that hence forth we shuld not be servauntes of synne. For he that is deed, ys iustified from synne.

Wherfore yf we be deed with Christ, we beleve that we shall live with him: remembringe that Christ once raysed from deeth, dyeth no more. Deeth hath no moare power over him. For as touchynge that he dyed, he dyed concernynge synne, once. And as touchinge that he liveth, he liveth vnto God. Lykewyse ymagen ye also, that ye are deed concernynge synne: but are alive vnto God thorow Iesus Christ oure Lorde. Let not synne raygne therfore in youre mortall bodyes, that ye shuld thervnto obey in the lustes of it. Nether geve ye youre members as instrumentes of vnrighteousnes vnto synne: but geve youre selves vnto God, as they that are alive from deeth. And geve youre membres as iustrumentes of righteousnes vnto God. Let not synne have power over you. For ye are not vnder the lawe, but vnder grace.

What then? Shall we synne, because we are not vnder the lawe: but vnder grace? God forbyd. Remember ye not how that to whom soever ye commit youre selves as servauntes to obey, his servauntes ye are to whom ye obey: whether it be of synne vnto deeth, or of obedience vnto righteousnes? God be thanked, that though ye were once the servauntes of synne, ye have yet obeyed with herte vnto the forme of doctryne wher vnto ye were delyvered. Ye are then made fre from synne, and are be come the servauntes of righteousnes.

I will speake grossly because of the infirmitie of youre flesshe. As ye have geven youre membres servauntes to vnclennes and to iniquitie, from iniquitie vnto iniquitie: even so nowe geve youre membres servantes vnto righteousnes, that ye maye be sanctified. For when ye were the servauntes of synne, ye were not vnder righteousnes. What frute had ye then in those thinges, wher of ye are now ashamed? For the ende of those thynges is deeth. But now are ye delivered from synne, and made the servauntes of God, and have youre frute that ye shuld be sanctifyed, and the ende everlastinge lyfe. For the rewarde of synne is deeth: but eternall lyfe is the gyfte of God, thorow Iesus Christ oure Lorde.


REMEMBER ye not brethren (I speake to them that know the lawe) how that the lawe hath power over a man as longe as it endureth? For the woman which is in subieccion to a man, is bounde by the lawe to the man, as longe as he liveth. Yf the man be deed, she is lowsed from the lawe of the man. So then yf whill the man liveth she couple her selfe with another man, she shalbe counted a wedlocke breaker. But yf the man be deed, she is fre from the lawe: so that she is no wedlocke breaker, though she couple her selfe with another man.

Even so ye my brethren, are deed concerninge the lawe by the body of Christ, that ye shuld be coupled to another (I meane to him that is rysen agayne from deeth) that we shuld bringe forth frute vnto God. For when we were in the flesshe, the lustes of synne which were stered vppe by the lawe, raygned in oure membres, to bringe forth frute vnto deeth. But now are we delivered from the lawe and deed, from that whervnto we werein bondage, that we shuld serve in a newe conversacion of the sprete, and not in the olde conversacion of the letter.

What shall we saye then? is the lawe synne? God forbid: but I knewe not what synne meant but by the lawe. For I had not knowne what lust had meant, excepte the lawe had sayde, thou shalt not lust. But synne toke an occasion by the meanes of the commaundement, and wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For with out the lawe, synne was deed. I once lived with out lawe. But when the commaundement came, synne revyved, and I was deed. And the very same commaundement which was ordeyned vnto lyfe, was founde to be vnto me an occasion of deeth. For synne toke occasion by the meanes of the commaundement and so disceaved me, and by the selfe commaundement slewe we. Wherfore the lawe is holy, and the commaundement holy, iust and good.

Was that then which is good, made deeth vnto me? God forbyd. Naye, synne was deeth vnto me, that it myght appere, how that synne by the meanes of that which is good, had wrought deeth in me: that synne which is vnder the commandement, myght be out of measure synfull. For we knowe that the lawe is spirituall: but I am carnall, solde 1 vnder synne, because I wote not what I doo. For what I wold, that do I not: but what I hate, that do I. Yf I do now that which I wolde not, I graunte to the lawe that it is good. So then nowe, it is not I that do it, but synne that dwelleth in me. For I knowe that in me (that is to saye in my flesshe) dwelleth no good thinge. To will is present with me: but I fynde no meanes to performe that which is good. For I doo not that good thinge which I wold: but that evill do I, which I wolde not. Finally, yf I do that I wolde not, then is it not I that doo it, but synne that dwelleth in me, doeth it. I fynde then by the lawe that when I wolde do good, evyll is present with me. I delite in the lawe of God, concerninge the inner man. But I se another lawe in my membres rebellinge agaynst the lawe of my mynde, and subduynge me vnto the lawe of synne, which is in my membres. O wretched man that I am: who shall delyver me from this body of deeth? I thanke God thorow Iesus Christ oure Lorde. So then I my silfe in my mynde serve the lawe of God, and in my flesshe the lawe of synne.

1 Solde vnder synne is to be made a bonde man to do the will of synne onlye.


THER is then no damnacion to them which are in Christ Iesu, which walke not after the flesshe: but after the sprete. For the lawe of the sprete that bringeth life thorowe Iesus Christ, hath delivered me from the lawe of synne and deeth. For what the lawe coulde not doo in as moche it was weake because of the flesshe: that performed God, and sent his sonne in the similitude of synfull flesshe, and by synne 1 damned synne in the flesshe: that the righteousnes requyred of the lawe myght be fulfilled in vs, which walke not after the flesshe, but after the sprete.

For they that are carnall, are carnally mynded. But they that are spirituall, are gostly mynded. To be carnally mynded, is deeth. But to be spiritually mynded is lyfe and peace. Because that the flesshly mynde is emnyte agaynst God: for it is not obedient to the lawe of God, nether can be. So then they that are geven to the flesshe, cannot please God.

But ye are not geven to the flesshe, but to the sprete: yf so be that the sprite of God dwell in you. If ther be eny man that hath not the sprite of Christ, ye same is none of his. 2 Yf Christ be in you, the body is deed because of synne: but the sprite is lyfe for righteousnes sake. Wherfore if the sprite of him that raysed vppe Iesus from deeth, dwell in you: even he that raysed vp Christ from deeth, shall quycken youre mortall bodyes, because that this sprite dwelleth in you.

Therfore brethren we are nowe detters, not to the flesshe, to live after the flesshe. For if ye live after the flesshe, ye must dye. But yf ye mortifie the dedes of the body, by the helpe of the sprite, ye shall lyve. For as many as are led by the sprete of God: they are the sonnes of god. For ye have no receaved the sprete of bondage to feare eny moare, but ye have receaved the sprite of adopcion wherby we crye Abba father. The same sprete certifieth oure sprete that we are the sonnes of God. Yf we be sonnes, we are also heyres, the heyres I meane of God, and heyres anexed with Christ: if so be that we suffer togedder, that we maye be glorified to gedder. 3

For I suppose that the affliccions of this lyfe, are not worthy of the glory which shalbe shewed vpon vs. Also the fervent desyre of the creatures abideth lokynge when the sonnes of God shall appere, because the creatures are subdued to vanyte agaynst their will: but for his will which subdueth them in hope. For the very creatures shalbe delivered from the bondage of corrupcion, into the glorious lybertie of the sonnes of God. For we knowe that every creature groneth with vs also, and travayleth in payne even vnto this tyme.

Not they only, but even we also which have the fyrst frutes of the sprite, 4 morne in oureselves and wayte for the adopcion 5 and loke for the delivraunce of oure bodyes. For we are savyd by hope. 6 But hope that is sene is no hope. For how can a man hope for that which he seyth? But and yf we hope for that we se not, then do we with pacience abyde for it.

Lyke wyse the sprite also helpeth oure infirmities. For we knowe not what to desyre as we ought: but the sprete maketh intercession mightely for vs with gronynges which cannot be expressid with tonge. And he that searcheth the hertes, knoweth what is the meaninge of the sprite: for he maketh intercession for the sayntes accordinge to the pleasure of god. For we knowe that all thinges worke for the best vnto them that love God, which also are called 7 of purpose. For those which he knewe before, he also ordeyned before, that they shuld be lyke fassioned vnto the shape of his sonne, that he myght be the fyrst begotten sonne amonge many brethren. Morover which he apoynted before, them he also called. And which he called, them also he iustified, which he iustified, them he also glorified.

What shall we then saye vnto these thinges? yf god be on oure syde: who can be agaynst vs? which spared not his awne sonne, but gave him for vs all: how shall he not with him geve vs all thinges also? Who shall laye eny thinge to the charge of goddes chosen? it is god that iustifieth: who then shall condempne? it is Christ which is deed, yea rather which is rysen agayne, which is also on the ryght honde of God, and maketh intercession for vs.

Who shall seperate vs from the love 8 of god? shall tribulacion? or anguysshe? or persecucion? other honger? other nakednesse? other parell? other swearde? As it is written: For thy sake are we kylled all daye longe, and are counted as shepe apoynted to be slayne. Neverthelesse in all these thinges we overcome strongly thorow his helpe that loved vs. Yea and I am sure that nether deeth, nether lyfe, nether angels, nor rule, nether power, nether thinges present, nether thinges to come, nether heyth, nether loweth, nether eny other creature shalbe able to departe vs from the love of God, shewed in Christ Iesu oure lorde.

1 Synne is taken here for a synne offeringe after the vse of the hebrue tonge.

2 Christes spirite is in all his, and the spirite is life because it consenteth vnto the lawe. And the bodye that is deed because it consenteth to synne, will that spryte quicken at the last: geue him lust to do the lawe, and will not soffre him to remayne in synne.

3 We must soffre with Christ if we shall raygne with him in glorie.

4 Fyrst fruts: a tast and a certayne porcion and not the full gyfte of ye spirite.

5 Adopcion: that is the inheritaunce promised by grace.

6 We are saued by hope: that is we hope to be delyuered oute of the corrupcion of oure body into the glorie that Christ now is in: and therfore faynt not in oure tribulacions.

7 God choseth of his awne goodnes and mercye: calleth thorow ye gospell: iustifieth thorow faith and glorifieth thorow good workes.

8 He that seeth what Christ hath done for him can not but beleue that God loueth him and will loue God agayne.


I SAYE the trueth in Christ and lye not, in that wherof my conscience beareth me witnes in the holy gost, that I have gret hevynes and continuall sorowe in my hert. For I have wysshed my selfe to be cursed from Christ, for my brethren and my kynsmen as pertayninge to the flesshe, which are the Israelites. To whom pertayneth the adopcion, and the glorie, and the covenauntes, and the law that was geven, and the service of God, and the promyses: whose also are the fathers, and they of whome (as concernynge the flesshe) Christ came, which is God over all thinges blessed for ever Amen.

I speake not these thinges as though the wordes of god had take none effecte. For they are not all Israelites which came of Israel: nether are they all chyldren strayght waye, because they are the seed of Abraham. But in Isaac shall thy seede be called: that is to saye, they which are the chyldren of the flesshe, are not the chyldren of god. But the chyldren of promes are counted the seede. For this is a worde of promes, aboute this tyme will I come, and Sara shall have a sonne.

Nether was it so with her only: but also when Rebecca was with chylde by one, I meane by oure father Isaac, yeer the chyldren were borne, when they had nether done good nether bad: that the purpose of God which is by election, myght stonde, it was sayde vnto her, not by the reason of workes, but by grace of the caller: the elder shall serve the yonger. As it is written: Iacob he loved, but Esau he hated.

What shall we saye then? is there eny vnrighteousses with God? God forbyd. For he sayth to Moses: I will shewe mercye to whom I shewe mercy: and will have compassion on whom I have compassion. So lieth it not then in a mans will or cunnynge, but in the mercye of god. For the scripture sayth vnto Pharao: Even for this same purpose have I stered thee vp, to shewe my power on thee, and that my name myght be declared thorow out all the worlde. So hath he mercye on whom he will, and whom he will, he maketh hearde herted.

Thou wilt saye then vnto me: why then blameth he vs yet? For who can resist his will? But o man, what arte thou which disputest with God? 1 Shall the worke saye to the workeman: why hast thou made me on this fassion? Hath not the potter power over the claye, even of the same lompe to make one vessell vnto honoure, and a nother vnto dishonoure? Even so, God willynge to shewe his wrath, and to make his power knowen, suffered with longe pacience the vessels of wrath, ordeyned to damnacion, that he myght declare the ryches of his glory on the vessels of mercye, which he had prepayred vnto glorie: that is to saye, vs which he called, not of the Iewes only, but also of the gentyls. As he sayth in Osee: I will call them my people which were not my people: and her beloved which was not beloved. And it shall come to passe in the place where it was sayd vnto them, ye are not my people: that there shalbe called the chyldren of the lyvynge God.

But Esaias cryeth concernynge Israel, though the nomber of the chyldren of Israel be as the sonde of the see, yet shall a remnaunt be saved. He finyssheth the worde verely and maketh it short in ryghteousnes. For a short worde will god make on erth. And as Esaias sayd before: Except the Lorde of sabaoth had left us seede, we had bene made as Zodoma, and had bene lykened to Gomorra.

What shall we saye then? We saye that the gentyls which followed not righteousnes have overtaken righteousnes: I meane the righteousnes which cometh of fayth. But Israel which folowed the lawe of righteousnes, coulde not attayne vnto the lawe of righteousnes. And wherfore? Because they sought it not by fayth: but as it were by the workes of the lawe. For they have stombled at the stomblynge stone. As it is written: Beholde I put in Syon a stomblynge stone, and a rocke which shall make men faule. And none that beleve on him, shalbe a shamed.

1 The fleshly and proude mynde that will be as wise as God must be mortified to learne to feare god and to be obey him and to leue disputinge with him.


BRETHREN, my hertes desyre and prayer to God for Israel is that they might be saved. For I beare them recorde that they have a fervent mynde to God warde, but not accordinge to knowledge. For they are ignoraunt of the righteousnes which is alowed before God, and goo about to stablisshe their awne righteousnes and therfore are not obedient vnto the righteousnes which is of valew before God. For Christ is the ende of the lawe, to iustifie all that beleve. 1

Moses describeth the righteousnes which cometh of the lawe, howe that the man which doth the thinges of the lawe, shall lyve therin. But the righteousnes which cometh of fayth, speaketh on this wyse. Saye not in thyne hert who shall ascende into heven? (that is nothinge els then to fetch Christ doune) Other who shall descende into the depe? (that is nothinge els but to fetch vp Christ from deeth) But what sayth the scripture? The worde is nye the, even in thy mouth and in thyn herte.

This worde is the worde of fayth which we preache. For yf thou shalt knowledge with thy mouth that Iesus is the lorde, and shalt beleve with thyn hert that God raysed him up from deeth, thou shalt be safe. For the belefe of the hert iustifieth: and to knowledge with the mouth maketh a man safe. 2 For the scripture sayth: whosoever beleveth on him, shall not be ashamed.

Ther is no difference bitwene the Iewe and the gentyll. For one is Lorde of all, which is ryche vnto all that call on him. For whosoever shall call on the name of the lorde, shalbe safe. But how shall they call on him, on whom they beleved not? how shall they beleve on him of whom they have not herde? how shall they heare with out a preacher? And how shall they preach except they be sent? As it is written: how beautifull are the fete of them which bringe glad tydynges of peace, and bringe glad tydynges of good thinges. But they have not all obeyed to the gospell. For Esaias sayth: Lorde who shall beleve oure sayinges? So then fayth cometh by hearynge, and hearynge cometh by the worde of God. But I axe: have they not herde? No dout, their sounde went out into all londes: and their wordes in to the endes of the worlde.

But I demaunde whether Israel dyd knowe or not? Fyrst Moses sayth: I will provoke you for to envy, by them that are no people, and by a folisshe nacion I will anger you. Esaias after that, is bolde and sayth. I am founde of them that sought me not, and have appered to them that axed not after me. And agaynst Israel he sayth: All daye longe have I stretched forth my hondes vnto a people that beleveth not, but speaketh agaynst me.

1 The lawe dryueth to christ to be iustified.

2 Though fayth iustifie from synne and though christ deserued the rewarde promysed yet is the promyse made on the condicion that we embrace Christes doctrine and confesse him with worde and dede. So that we are iustified to do good workes, and in them to walke to the saluacion promysed.


I SAYE then: hath god cast awaye his people? God forbyd. For even I verely am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, and of the tribe of Beniamin, god hath not cast awaye his people which he knew before. Ether wote ye not what the scripture sayth by the mouth of Elias, how he maketh intercession to god agaynst Israel, sayinge: Lorde they have kylled thy prophetes and dygged doune thyn alters: and I am lefte only, and they seke my lyfe. But what sayth the answer of god to him agayne? I have reserved vnto me seven thousande men which have not bowed the knee to Baal. Even so at this tyme ys ther a remnanaunt lefte thorow the eleccion of grace. Yf it be of grace, then is it not of workes. For then were grace no moare grace. Yf it be of workes, then is it no moare grace. For then were deservyng no lenger deservynge. 1

What then? Israel hath not obtayned that, that he sought. No but yet the election hath obtayned it. The remnaunt are blynded, accordynge as it is written: God hath geven them the sprete of vnquyetnes: eyes that they shuld not se, and eares that they shuld not heare even vnto this daye. And David sayth: Let their table be made a snare to take them with all, and an occasion to faule, and a rewarde vnto them. Let their eyes be blynded that they se not: and ever bowe doune their backes.

I saye then: Have they therfore stombled that they shulde but faule only? God forbyd: but thorowe their faule is salvacion happened vnto the gentyls, for to provoke them with all. Wherfore yf the faule of them, be the ryches of the worlde: and the mynysshynge of them the ryches of the gentyls: How moche more shuld it be so, yf they all beleved. I speake to you gentyls, in as moche as I am the Apostle of the gentyls I will magnify myn office, that I myght provoke them which are my flesshe, and myght save some of them. For yf the castynge awaye of them, be the reconcylynge of the worlde: what shall the receavynge of them be, but lyfe agayne from deeth? For yf one pece be holy, the whole heepe is holy. And yf the rote be holy, the braunches are holy also.

Though some of the brauuches be broken of, and thou beynge a wylde olyue tree, arte graft in amonge them, and made parttaker of the rote and fatnes of the olyve tree, bost not thy selfe agaynst the braunches. For yf thou bost thy selfe, remember that thou bearest not the rote, but the rote thee. Thou wilt saye then: the braunches are broken of, that I myght be grafte in. Thou sayest well: because of vnbeleve they are broken of, and thou stondest stedfast in fayth. Be not hye mynded, but feare seynge that God spared not the naturall braunches, lest haply he also spare not thee.

Beholde the kyndnes and rigorousnes of God: on them which fell, rigorousnes: but towardes thee, kyndnes, yf thou continue in his kyndnes. Or els thou shalt be hewen off, and they yf they byde not still in vnbelefe, shalbe graffed in agayne. For God is of power to graffe them in agayne. For yf thou wast cut out of a naturall wilde olyve tree, and wast graffed contrary to nature in a true olyve tree: how moche more shall the naturall braunches be graffed in their awne olyve tree agayne.

I wolde not that this secrete shuld be hyd from you my brethren (lest ye shuld be wyse in youre awne consaytes) that partly blyndnes is happened in Israel, vntyll the fulnes of the gentyls be come in: and so all Israel shalbe saved. As it is written: There shall come oute of Sion he that doth delyver, and shall turne awaye the vngodlynes of Iacob. And this is my covenaunt vnto them, when I shall take awaye their synnes. As concernynge the gospell, they are enemies for youre sakes: but as touchinge the election, they are loved for the fathers sakes.

For verely the gyftes and callynge of god are soche, that it cannot repent him of them: for loke, as ye in tyme passed have not beleved God, yet have now obtayned mercy thorow their vnbelefe: even so now have they not beleved the mercy which is happened vnto you, that they also maye obtayne mercy. God hath wrapped all nacions in vnbeleve, that he myght have mercie on all.

O the depnes of the aboundaunt wysdome and knowledge of God: how vnserchable are his iudgementes, and his wayes past findyng out. For who hath knowen the mynde of the lorde? or who was his counseller? other who hath geven vnto him fyrst, that he myght be recompensed agayne? For of him, and thorow him, and for him, are all thinges. To him be glorye for ever Amen.

1 Grace and workes are contrarye thinges.


I BESECHE you therfore brethren, by the mercyfulnes of God, that ye make youre bodyes aquicke sacrifise holy and acceptable vnto God which is youre resonable seruynge of god. 1 And fassion not youre selves lyke vnto this worlde: But be ye chaunged in youre shape, by the renuynge of youre wittes that ye maye fele what thynge that good, that acceptable, and perfaycte will of god is. For I saye (thorowe the grace that vnto me geven is) to every man amonge you that noman esteme of him selfe moare then it becometh him to esteme: but that he discretely iudge of him selfe, accordynge as God hath dealte to every man the measure of fayth.

As we have many members in one body, and all members have not one office: so we beynge many are one body in Christ and every man (amonge oure selves) one anothers members. Seynge that we have dyvers gyftes accordynge to the grace that is geven vnto vs: yf eny man have the gyft of prophesye, 2 let him have it that it be agreynge vnto the fayth. Let him that hath an office, wayte on his office. Let him that teacheth, take hede to his doctrine. Let him that exhorteth, geve attendaunce to his exhortacion. Yf eny man geve, let him do it with singlenes. Let him that ruleth, do it with diligence. Yf eny man shewe mercy, let him do it with cherfulnes.

Let love be with out dissimulacion. Hate that which is evyll, and cleave vnto that which is good. Be kynde one to another with brotherly love. In gevynge honoure, goo one before another. Let not that busynes which ye have in honde, be tedious to you. Be fervent in the sprete. Applye youre selves to the tyme. Reioyce in hope. Be pacient in tribulacion. Continue in prayer. Distribute vnto the necessite of the saynctes and diligently to harboure. Blesse them which persecute you: blesse but course not. Be mery with them that are mery. Wepe with them that wepe. Be of lyke affeccion one towardes another. Be not hye minded: but make youreselves equall to them of the lower sorte. Be not wyse in youre awne opinions. Recompence to no man evyll fore evyll. Provyde afore honde thinges honest in the syght of all men. Yf it be possible, howbe it of youre parte, have peace with all men. Derly beloued avenge not youre selves, but geve roume vnto the wrath of God. For it is written: vengeaunce is myne, and I will rewarde saith the lorde.

Terfore yf thyn enemy honger, fede him: yf he thurst, geve him drinke. For in so doynge thou shalt heape coles of fyre on his heed: 3 Be not overcome of evyll: But overcome evyll with goodnes.

1 True seruynge of God is to bringe the bodye vnto the obedience of the law of God.

2 Prophesie is taken here for the expoundynge of scriptures: which in darcke places must be expounded that it agre to the open places and generall articles of the fayth.

3 Coles. this thou shalt kyndle him and make him to loue.


LET every soule submit him selfe vnto the auctorite of the hyer powers. For there is no power but of God. The powers that be, are ordeyned of God. Whosoever therfore resysteth power, resisteth the ordinaunce of God. And they that resist, shall receave to them selfe damnacion. For rulars are not to be feared for good workes, but for evyll. Wilt thou be with out feare of the power? Do well then: and so shalt thou be praysed of the same. For he is the minister of God, for thy welth. But and yf thou do evyll, then feare: for he beareth not a swearde for nought: but is the minister of God, to take vengeaunce on them that do evyll. Wherfore ye must nedes obeye, not for feare of vengeaunce only: but also because of conscience. 1 And even for this cause paye ye tribute. For they are goddes ministers, servynge for the same purpose.

Geve to every man therfore his duetie: Tribute to whom tribute belongeth: Custome to whom custome is due: feare to whom feare belongeth: Honoure to whom honoure pertayneth. Owe nothinge to eny man: but to love one another. For he that loveth another, fulfylleth the lawe. For these commaundementes: Thou shalt not commit advoutry: Thou shalt not kyll: Thou shalt not steale: Thou shalt not beare false witnes: Thou shalt not desyre and so forth (yf there be eny other commaundement) they are all comprehended in this sayinge: Love thyne neghbour as thy selfe. Love hurteth not his neghbour. Therfore is love the fulfillynge of the lawe.

This also we knowe, I mean the season, howe that it is tyme that we shuld now awake oute of slepe. For now is oure salvacion nearer 2 then when we beleved. The nyght is passed and the daye is come nye. Let us therfore cast awaye the dedes of darcknes, and let vs put on the Armoure of lyght. 3 Let vs walke honestly as it were in the daye lyght: not in eatynge and drinkynge: nether in chamburynge and wantannes: nether in stryfe and envyinge: but put ye on the Lorde Iesus Christ. And make not provision for the flesshe, to fulfyll the lustes of it.

1 Though thou were of power to resist the power, yet were thou dampned in thy conscience yf thou dydest yt, because it is agaynst godes commaundement.

2 Christ which is oure saluacion is now nerer then when we looked for him in the olde testament.

3 Armoure of light: fayth, hope, loue, the feare of God, truthe and all that the light of Godes worde teacheth.


HIM that is weake in the fayth, receave vnto you, not in disputynge and troublynge his conscience. One beleveth that he maye eate all thinge. Another which is weake, eateth earbes. Let not him that eateth, despise him that eateth not. And let not him whiche eateth not, iudge him that eateth. For God hath receaved him. What arte thou that iudgest another mannes servaunt? Whether he stonde or faule, that pertayneth vnto his master: yea, he shall stonde. For God is able to make him stonde.

This man putteth difference bitwene daye and daye. Another man counteth all dayes alyke. Se that no man waver in his awne meanynge. He that observeth one daye more then another, doth it for the lordes pleasure. And he that observeth not one daye moare then another, doeth it to please the lorde also. He that eateth, doth it to please the lorde, for he geveth god thankes. And he that eateth not, eateth not to please the lorde with all, and geveth god thankes. For none of vs lyveth his awne servaunt: nether doeth anye of vs dye his awne servaunt. Yf we lyve, we lyve to be at the lordes will. And yf we dye, we dye at the lordes will. Whether we lyve therfore or dye, we are the lordes. For Christ therfore dyed and rose agayne, and revived, that he myght be lorde both of deed and quicke.

But why doest thou then iudge thy brother? Other why doest thou despyse thy brother? We shall all be brought before the iudgement seate of Christ. For it is written: as truely as I lyve sayth the lorde, all knees shall bowe to me, and all tonges shall geve a knowledge to God. So shall every one of vs geve accomptes of him selfe to God. Let vs not therfore iudge one another eny more.

But iudge this rather, that no man put a stomblynge blocke or an occasion to faule in his brothers waye. For I knowe and am full certified in the Lorde Iesus, that ther is nothinge comen 1 of it selfe: but vnto him that iudgeth it to be comen: to him is it comen. If thy brother be greved with thy meate, now walkest thou not charitablye. Destroye not him with thy meate, for whom Christ dyed. Cause not youre treasure 2 to be evyll spoken of. For the kyngdome of God is not meate and drinke: but righteousnes, peace and ioye in the holy goost. For whosoever in these thinges serveth Christ, pleaseth well God, and is commended of men.

Let vs folowe those thinges which make for peace, and thinges wherwith one maye edyfie another. Destroye not the worke of god for a lytell meates sake. All thinges are pure: but it is evyll for that man, which eateth with hurte of his conscience. It is good nether to eate flesshe, nether to drincke wyne, nether eny thinge, wherby thy brother stombleth, ether falleth, or is made weake. Hast thou fayth? have it with thy selfe before god. Happy is he that condempneth not him selfe in that thinge which he aloweth. For he that maketh conscience, is dampned yf he eate: because he doth it not of fayth. For whatsoever is not of fayth, that same is synne.

1 Comen: that is to saye vncleane.

2 Oure treasure is oure knowledge.


WE which are stronge, ought to beare the fraylnes of them which are weake, and not to stonde in oure awne consaytes. 1 Let every man please his neghbour vnto his welth and edyfyinge. For Christ pleased not him selfe: but as it is written, The rebukes of them which rebuked thee, fell on me. Whatsoever thinges are written afore tyme, are written for oure learnynge, that we thorow pacience and comforte of the scripture, myght have hope.

The God of pacience and consolacion, geve vnto every one of you, that ye be lyke mynded one towardes another after the insample of Christ: that ye all agreynge together, maye with one mouth prayse God the father of oure Lorde Iesus. Wherfore receave ye one another as Christ receaved vs, to the prayse of God.

And I saye that Iesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the trueth of god, to conferme the promyses made vnto the fathers. And let the gentyls prayse god for his mercy, as it is written: For this cause I will prayse thee amonge the gentyls, and synge in thy name. And agayne he sayth: reioyse ye gentyles with his people. And agayne, prayse the Lorde all ye gentyls, and laude him all nacions. And in another place Esaias sayth: ther shalbe the rote of Iesse, and he that shall ryse to raygne over the gentyls: in him shall the gentyls trust. The God of hope fyll you with all ioye and peace in belevynge: that ye maye be ryche in hope thorowe the power of the holy goost.

I my selfe am full certified of you my brethren, that ye youre selves are full of goodnes and filled with all knowledge, and are able to exhorte one another. Neverthelesse brethren I have some what boldly written vnto you, as one that putteth you in remembraunce, thorow the grace that is geven me of God, that I shuld be the minister of Iesu Christ amonge the gentyls, and shuld minister the gladde tydynges of God, that the gentyls myght be an acceptable offerynge, sanctyfied by the holy goost. I have therfore wherof I maye reioyse in Christ Iesu, in those thinges which pertayne to God. For I dare not speake of eny of those thinges which Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the gentyls obedient, with worde and dede, in myghty signes and wonders, by the power of the sprete of God: so that from Ierusalem and the costes rounde aboute vnto Illyricum, I have fylled all countres with the gladde tydynges of Christ.

So have I enforsed my selfe to preache the gospell, not where Christ was named, lest I shuld have bylt on another mannes foundacion: but as it is written: To whom he was not spoken of, they shall se: and they that hearde not, shall vnderstonde. For this cause I have bene ofte let to come vnto you: but now seynge I have no moare to do in these countres, and also have bene desyrous many yeares to come vnto you, when I shall take my iorney into spayne, I will come to you. I trust to se you in my iorney, and to be brought on my waye thither warde by you after that I have somwhat enioyed you.

Now go I vnto Ierusalem, and minister vnto the saynctes. For it hath pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certayne distribucion vpon the poore saynctes which are at Ierusalem. It hath pleased them verely, and their detters are they. For yf the gentils be made partetakers of their spirituall thinges, their dutie is to minister vnto them in carnall thinges. When I have performed this, and have brought them this frute sealed, I will come backe agayne by you into Spayne. And I am sure when I come, that I shall come with aboundaunce of the blessinge of the gospell of Christ.

I beseche you brethren for oure Lorde Iesus Christes sake, and for the love of the sprete, that ye helpe me in my busynes, with youre prayers to God for me, that I maye be delyvered from them which beleve not in Iewry, and that this my service, which I have to Ierusalem, maye be accepted of the saynctes, that I maye come vnto you with ioye, by the will of God, and maye with you be refresshed. The God of peace be with you. Amen.

1 He is stronge that can beare another mannes weakenes.


I COMMEDE vnto you Phebe oure sister (which is a minister of the congregacion of Chenchrea) that ye receave her in the Lorde as it becommeth saynctes, and that ye assist her in whatsoever busynes she neadeth of youre ayde. For she hath suckered many, and myne awne selfe also. Grete Prisca and Aquila my helpers in Christ Iesu, which have for my lyfe layde doune their awne neckes. Vnto which not I only geve thankes but also the congregacion of the gentyls. Lyke wyse grete all the company that is in thy housse. Salute my welbeloved Epenetos, which is the fyrst frute 1 amonge them of Achaia. Grete Mary which bestowed moche labour on vs. Salute Andronicus and Iunia my cosyns, which were presoners with me also, which are wele taken amonge the Apostles, and were in Christ before me. Grete Amplias my beloved in the Lorde. Salute Vrban oure helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloved. Salute Appelles approved in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobolus housholde. Salute Herodion my kynsman. Grete them of the housholde of Narcissus which are in the Lorde. Salute Triphena and Triphosa, which wemen dyd labour in the Lorde. Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured in the Lorde. Salute Rufus chosen in the Lorde, and his mother and myne. Grete Asincritus, Phlegon, Herman, Patrobas, Hermen, and the brethren which are with them. Salute Philologus and Iulia, Nereus and his sister, and Olimpha, and all the saynctes which are with them. Salute one another with an holy kysse. The congregacions of Christ salute you.

I beseche you brethren, marke them which cause division and geve occasions of evyll, contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned: and avoyde them. For they that are suche serve not the Lorde Iesus Christ: but their awne bellyes, and with swete preachinges and flatteringe wordes deceave the hertes of the innocentes. For youre obedience 2 extendeth to all men. I am glad no dout of you. But yet I wolde have you wyse vnto that which is good, and to be innocentes concerninge evyll. The God of peace treade Satan vnder youre fete shortly. The grace of oure Lorde Iesu Christ be with you.

Thimotheus my worke felow, and Lucius and Iason and Sopater my kynsmen, salute you. I Tertius salute you, which wrote this epistle in the Lorde. Gaius myne hoste and the hoste of all the congregacions, saluteth you. Erastus the chamberlayne of the cite saluteth you. And Quartus a brother saluteth you. The grace of oure Lorde Iesu Christ be with you all. Amen.

To him that is of power to stablisshe you accordinge to my gospell and preachinge of Iesus Christ, in vtteringe of the mistery which was kept secret sence the worlde beganne, but now is opened by the scriptures of prophesie, at the commaundement of the everlastinge god, to stere vp obedience to the faith publisshed amonge all nacions: To the same God, which alone is wyse, be prayse thorowe Iesus Christ for ever. Amen.

To the Romayns.

Sent from Chorinthum by Phebe, she that was the minister
vnto the congregacion at Chenchrea.

1 Fyrst frute: that is the fyrst that was conuerted to God.

2 Paule wolde haue the laye people learned to iudge the prophetes and to obeye them accordinge to knowledge onlye, for all obedience that is not after true knowledge is disalowed of God.