The ‘Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae’ on the Canon

The Synopsis of Sacred Scripture is an ancient treatise which has been traditionally ascribed to Athanasius, but most scholars now think that it was composed by an anonymous Greek churchman sometime in the sixth century. Below we reproduce the most relevant portions of the treatise. The Greek text is according to J.P. Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca, vol. 28 (Paris, 1887; volume 4 of the collected works of Athanasius), cols. 284-93 and 432. The English translation is my own.

1. Πᾶσα Γραφὴ ἡμῶν Χριστιανῶν, θεόπνευστός ἐστιν. Οὐκ ἀόριστα δὲ, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον ὡρισμένα καὶ κεκανονισμένα ἔχει τὰ βιβλία. Καὶ ἔστι τῆς μὲν Παλαιᾶς ∆ιαθήκης ταῦτα· Γένεσις, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν.» Ἔξοδος, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ταῦτα τὰ ὀνόματα τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ τῶν εἰσπορευομένων εἰς Αἴγυπτον.» Λευϊτικὸν, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐκάλεσε Μωϋσῆν, καὶ ἐλάλησε Κύριος αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ σκηνῇ τοῦ μαρτυρίου.» Ἀριθμοὶ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή «Καὶ ἐλάλησε Κύριος πρὸς Μωϋσῆν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τῇ Σινᾶ ἐν τῇ σκηνῇ τοῦ μαρτυρίου.» ∆ευτερονόμιον, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι, οὓς ἐλάλησε Μωϋσῆς παντὶ Ἰσραὴλ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, πρὸς δυσμαῖς, πλησίον τῆς Ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης.» Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Ναυῆ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ τὴν τελευτὴν δούλου Κυρίου, εἶπε Κύριος τῷ Ἰησοῦ, υἱῷ Ναυῆ, λειτουργῷ Μωϋσῆ, λέγων.» Κριταὶ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ τὴν τελευτὴν Ἰησοῦ, καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ ἐν Κυρίῳ λέγοντες· Τίς ἀναβήσεται πρὸς τοὺς Χανα ναίους ἀφηγούμενος;» Ῥοὺθ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ κρίνειν τοὺς κριτὰς, ἐγένετο λιμὸς ἐν τῇ γῇ.» Βασιλειῶν πρώτη καὶ δευτέρα, εἰς ἓν ἀριθμούμεναι βιβλίον. Καὶ τῆς μὲν πρώτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἄνθρωπος ἐξ Ἀρμαθαῒμ Σιφᾶ, ἐξ ὄρους Ἐφραῒμ, καὶ ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἐλκανᾶ, υἱὸς Ἱερεμεὴλ, υἱοῦ Ἡλεί.» Τῆς δὲ δευτέρας ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἐγένετο μετὰ τὸ ἀποθανεῖν Σαοὺλ, καὶ ∆αβὶδ ἀνέστρεψε τύπτων τὸν Ἀμαλήκ.» Βασιλειῶν τρίτη καὶ τετάρτη, εἰς ἓν πάλιν ἀριθμούμεναι βιβλίον. Καὶ τῆς μὲν τρίτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς ∆αβὶδ πρεσβύτερος, προβεβηκὼς ἡμέραις· καὶ περιέβαλλον αὐτὸν ἱματίοις, καὶ οὐκ ἐθερμαίνετο.» Τῆς δὲ τετάρτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἠθέτησε Μωὰβ ἐν Ἰσραὴλ, μετὰ τὸ ἀποθανεῖν Ἀχαάβ.» Παραλειπομένων πρῶτον καὶ δεύτερον, εἰς ἓν ἀριθμούμενα βιβλίον. Καὶ ἔστι τοῦ μὲν πρώτου ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἀδὰμ, Σὴθ, Ἐνὼς, Καϊνᾶν, Μαλελεὴλ, Ἰαρὲδ, Ἐνὼχ, Μαθουσάλα, Λάμεχ, Νῶε.» Τοῦ δὲ δευτέρου ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐνίσχυσε Σαλομὼν υἱὸς ∆αβὶδ ἐπὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς αὐτοῦ μετ' αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐμεγάλυνεν αὐτὸν εἰς ὕψος.» Ἔσδρας πρῶτος καὶ δεύτερος, εἰς ἓν ἀριθμούμενοι βιβλίον. Καὶ τοῦ μὲν πρώτου ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἤγαγεν Ἰωσίας τὸ Πάσχα ἐν Ἱερουσαλὴμ τῷ Κυρίῳ ἑαυτοῦ τῇ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ μηνὸς τοῦ πρώτου.» Τοῦ δὲ δευτέρου ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ ἔτει Κύρου τοῦ βασιλέως Περσῶν, τοῦ τελεσθῆναι λόγον ἀπὸ στόματος Ἱερεμίου, ἐξήγειρε Κύριος τὸ πνεῦμα Κύρου τοῦ βασιλέως Περσῶν.» Ψαλτήριον ∆αβιτικὸν, ἔχον ψαλμοὺς ρναʹ· οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ, ἤγουν ὁ πρῶτος ψαλμός· «Μακάριος ἀνὴρ ὃς οὐκ ἐπορεύθη ἐν βουλῇ ἀσεβῶν.» Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος υἱοῦ ∆αβὶδ, ὃς ἐβασίλευσεν ἐν Ἰσραὴλ, γνῶναι σοφίαν καὶ παιδείαν.» Ἐκκλησιαστὴς τοῦ αὐτοῦ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ῥήματα Ἐκκλησιαστοῦ, υἱοῦ ∆αβὶδ, βασιλέως Ἰσραὴλ ἐν Ἱερουσαλήμ. Ματαιότης ματαιοτήτων, τὰ πάντα ματαιότης.» Ἆσμα ᾀσμάτων τοῦ αὐτοῦ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἆσμα ᾀσμάτων, ὅ ἐστι τῷ Σολομών. Φιλησάτω με ἀπὸ φιλημάτων στόματος αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἀγαθοὶ μαστοί σου ὑπὲρ οἶνον.» Ἰὼβ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἄνθρωπός τις ἦν ἐν χώρᾳ Αὐσέτιδι, ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰὼβ, καὶ ἦν ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος ἄμεμπτος καὶ θεοσεβής.» Προφῆται δώδεκα, εἰς ἓν ἀριθμούμενοι βιβλίον. Εἰσὶ δὲ οὗτοι, Ὠσηὲ πρῶτος, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Λόγος Κυρίου, ὃς ἐγενήθη πρὸς Ὠσηὲ, τὸν τοῦ Βεηρὶ, ἐν ἡμέραις Ὀζίου, καὶ Ἰωαθὰμ, καὶ Ἀχὰζ, καὶ Ἐζεκίο βασιλέων Ἰούδα, καὶ ἐν ἡμέραις Ἱεροβοὰμ τοῦ Ἰωᾶς, βασιλέως Ἰσραήλ. Ἀρχὴ λόγου Κυρίου ἐν Ὠσηέ.» Εἶτα Ἀμὼς, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Λόγοι Ἀμὼς, οἳ ἐγένοντο ἐν Ἀκκαρεὶμ, ἐκ Θεκουὲ, οὓς εἶδεν ὑπὲρ Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐν ἡμέραις Ὀζίου βασιλέως Ἰούδα καὶ ἐν ἡμέραις Ἱεροβοὰμ τοῦ Ἰωᾶς, βασιλέως Ἰσραὴλ, πρὸ δύο ἐτῶν τοῦ σεισμοῦ.» Μιχαίας, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος Κυρίου πρὸς Μιχαίαν τὸν τοῦ Μωραθὶ ἐν ἡμέραις Ἰωάθαμ, καὶ Ἀχὰζ, καὶ Ἐζεκίου βασιλέων Ἰούδα, ὑπὲρ ὧν εἶδε περὶ Σαμαρείας καὶ Ἱερουσαλήμ.» Ἰωὴλ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Λόγος Κυρίου, ὃς ἐγενήθη πρὸς Ἰωὴλ τὸν τοῦ Βαθουήλ. Ἀκούσατε δὴ ταῦτα πάντα οἱ πρεσβύτεροι, καὶ ἐνωτίσασθε, πάντες οἱ κατοικοῦντες τὴν γῆν.» Ἀβδιοῦ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ὅρασις Ἀβδιοῦ· Τάδε λέγει Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς τῇ Ἰδουμαίᾳ.» Ἰωνᾶς, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος Κυρίου πρὸς Ἰωνᾶν τὸν τοῦ Ἀμαθὶ, λέγων· Ἀνάστηθι καὶ πορεύθητι εἰς Νινευὶ τὴν πόλιν τὴν μεγάλην.» Ναοὺμ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Λῆμμα Νινευί. Βίβλος ὁράσεως Ναοὺμ τοῦ ἐν Ἐλκεσαί.» Ἀμβακοὺμ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Τὸ λῆμμα ὃ εἶδεν Ἀμβακοὺμ ὁ προφήτης.» Σοφωνίας, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Λόγος Κυρίου, ὃς ἐγενήθη πρὸς Σοφωνίαν τὸν τοῦ Χοὺς, υἱὸν Γοδολίου τοῦ Ἀμορίου τοῦ Ἐζεκίου, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἰωσίου υἱοῦ Ἀμὼς βασιλέως Ἰούδα.» Ἀγγαῖος, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ ἔτει ἐπὶ ∆αρείου τοῦ βασιλέως ἐν τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ, μιᾷ τοῦ μηνὸς, ἐγένετο λόγος Κυρίου ἐν χειρὶ Ἀγγαίου προφήτου λέγων.» Ζαχαρίας, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἐν τῷ ὀγδόῳ μηνὶ ἔτους δευτέρου ἐπὶ ∆αρείου ἐγένετο λόγος Κυρίου ἐπὶ Ζαχαρίαν, τὸν τοῦ Βαραχίου, υἱὸν Ἀδδὼ τὸν προφήτην, λέγων.» Μαλαχίας, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Λῆμμα λόγου Κυρίου ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἐν χειρὶ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ.» Οὗτοι μὲν οὖν οἱ δώδεκα εἰς ἓν βιβλίον. Ἑξῆς δὲ ἕτεροι τέσσαρες, πρὸς ἓν ἕκαστος βιβλίον, οὗτοι· Ἡσαΐας, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ὅρασις, ἣν εἶδεν Ἡσαΐας υἱὸς Ἀμὼς, ἣν εἶδε κατὰ τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ κατὰ τῆς Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐν βασιλείᾳ Ὀζίου, καὶ Ἰωάθαμ, καὶ Ἀχὰζ, καὶ Ἐζεκίου, οἳ ἐβασίλευσαν τῆς Ἰουδαίας. Ἄκουε, οὐρανὲ, καὶ ἐνωτίζου, ἡ γῆ, ὅτι Κύριος ἐλάλησεν.» Ἱερεμίας, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὃ ἐγένετο ἐπὶ Ἱερεμίαν τὸν τοῦ Χελκίου, ὃς ἦν ἐκ τῶν ἱερέων.» Ἐζεκιὴλ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ τριακοστῷ ἔτει ἐν τῷ τετάρτῳ μηνὶ, καὶ ἐγὼ ἤμην ἐν μέσῳ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας ἐπὶ τοῦ ποταμοῦ Χοβὰρ, καὶ ἠνοίχθησαν οἱ οὐρανοὶ, καὶ εἶδον ὁράσεις Θεοῦ.» ∆ανιὴλ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Καὶ ἦν ἀνὴρ οἰκῶν ἐν Βαβυλῶνι, καὶ ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἰωακεὶμ, καὶ ἔλαβε γυναῖκα ᾗ ὄνομα Σουσάννα, θυγάτηρ Χελκίου, καλὴ σφόδρα καὶ φοβουμένη τὸν Κύριον.» All of our Christian Scriptures are inspired by God, and these books are not indefinite but set apart and designated as canonical. And the books of the Old Testament are these: Genesis, which begins, "In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth"; Exodus, which begins "These are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt"; Leviticus, which begins "And the Lord called Moses again and spoke to him out of the tabernacle of witness"; Numbers, which begins "And the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sina, in the tabernacle of witness"; Deuteronomy, which begins "These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel on this side Jordan in the desert towards the west near the Red Sea"; Joshua son of Naue, which begins "And it came to pass after the death of Moses, that the Lord spoke to Joshua the son of Naue, the minister of Moses, saying"; Judges, which begins "And it came to pass after the death of Joshua, that the children of Israel enquired of the Lord, saying, Who shall go up for us first against the Chananites, to fight against them?"; Ruth, which begins "And it came to pass when the judges ruled, that there was a famine in the land"; First and Second Kings, which are counted as one book, in which the first begins "There was a man of Armathaim Sipha, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Helkana, a son of Jeremeel the son of Elias", and in which the second begins, "And it came to pass after Saul was dead, that David returned from smiting Amalec"; Third and Fourth Kings, which are likewise counted as one book, in which the third begins, "And king David was old and advanced in days, and they covered him with clothes, and he was not warmed", and the fourth begins, "And Moab rebelled against Israel after the death of Achaab"; Paralipomenon First and Second, which are counted as one book, of which the first begins, "Adam, Seth, Enos, and Cainan, Maleleel, Jared, Enoch, Mathusala, Lamech, Noe", and the second begins, "And Solomon the son of David was established over his kingdom, and the Lord his God was with him, and increased him exceedingly"; First and Second Esdras, which are counted as one book, in which the first begins, "Josias kept the passover to his Lord in Jerusalem; he killed the passover lamb on the fourteenth day of the first month", and the second begins, "Now in the first year of Cyrus king of the Persians, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremias might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of the Persians"; The Psalms of David, which includes 151 Psalms, the first one beginning with "Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly"; The Parables of Solomon, beginning with "The Proverbs of Solomon son of David, who reigned in Israel, to know wisdom and instruction"; Ecclesiastes by the same author, which begins "The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king of Israel in Jerusalem: vanity of vanities ... all is vanity"; Song of Songs by the same author, which begins "The Song of songs, which is Solomonís: let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy breasts are better than wine"; Job, which begins "There was a certain man in the land of Ausis, whose name was Job; and that man was blameless and godly"; The Twelve Prophets, which are counted as one book; and of these Hosea is the first, which begins, "The word of the Lord which came to Osee the son of Beeri, in the days of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joas, king of Israel. The beginning of the word of the Lord by Osee"; next is Amos, which begins "The words of Amos which came to him in Accarim out of Thecue, which he saw concerning Jerusalem, in the days of Ozias king of Juda, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joas king of Israel, two years before the earthquake"; Michaeas [Micah], which begins "and the word of the Lord came to Michaeas the son of Morasthi, in the days of Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, kings of Juda, concerning what he saw regarding Samaria and Jerusalem."; Joel, which begins "The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Bathuel: hear these words, ye elders, and hearken all ye that inhabit the land"; Obdias [Obadiah], which begins, "The vision of Obdias: thus saith the Lord God to Idumea"; Jonas, which begins, "Now the word of the Lord came to Jonas the son of Amathi, saying, Rise, and go to Nineve, the great city"; Naum [Nahum], which begins "The burden of Nineve: the book of the vision of Naum the Elkesite"; Ambacum [Habakkuk], which begins "The burden which the prophet Ambacum saw"; Sophonias [Zephaniah], which begins "The word of the Lord which came to Sophonias the son of Chusi, the son of Godolias, the son of Amorias, the son of Ezekias, in the days of Josias son of Amon, king of Juda"; Aggaeus [Haggai], which begins "In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of the prophet Aggaeus, saying"; Zacharias, which begins "In the eighth month, in the second year of the reign of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, the son of Barachias, the son of Addo, the prophet, saying"; Malachias, which begins "The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel by the hand of his messenger." These, then, are the Twelve in one book. And besides these, there are four others which have each one book: Esaias [Isaiah], which begins "The vision which Esaias the son of Amos saw, which he saw against Juda, and against Jerusalem, in the reign of Ozias, and Joatham, and Achaz, and Ezekias, who reigned over Judea: hear, O heaven, and hearken, O earth, for the Lord has spoken"; Jeremias, which begins "The word of God which came to Jeremias the son of Chelcias, of the priests"; Ezechiel, which begins "Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, on the fifth day of the month, that I was in the midst of the captivity by the river of Chobar; and the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God"; Daniel, which begins "There was a man living in Babylon whose name was Joakim, and he took a wife named Susanna, the daughter of Hilkiah, a very beautiful woman and one who feared the Lord";
2. Ὁμοῦ τὰ κανονιζόμενα τῆς Παλαιᾶς ∆ιαθήκης βιβλία εἴκοσι δύο, ἰσάριθμα τοῖς γράμμασι τῶν Ἑβραίων. Τοσαῦτα γάρ εἰσι παρ' αὐτοῖς τὰ στοιχεῖα. Ἐκτὸς δὲ τούτων εἰσὶ πάλιν ἕτερα βιβλία τῆς αὐτῆς Παλαιᾶς ∆ιαθήκης, οὐ κανονιζόμενα μὲν, ἀναγινωσκόμενα δὲ μόνον τοῖς κατηχουμένοις ταῦτα· Σοφία Σολομῶνος, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἀγαπήσατε δικαιοσύνην, οἱ κρίνοντες τὴν γῆν.» Σοφία Ἰησοῦ υἱοῦ Σιρὰχ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Πᾶσα σοφία παρὰ Κυρίου, καὶ μετ' αὐτοῦ ἐστιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.» Ἐσθὴρ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἔτους δευτέρου, βασιλεύοντος Ἀρταξέρξου τοῦ μεγάλου, τῇ μιᾷ τοῦ Νεισᾶν ἐνύπνιον εἶδε Μαρδοχαῖος ὁ τοῦ Ἰαείρου τοῦ Σεμεεὶ τοῦ Κισαίου, ἐκ φυλῆς Βενιαμίν.» Ἰουδὴθ, οὗ ἀρχή· «Ἔτους δωδεκάτου τῆς βασιλείας Ναβουχοδονόσωρ, ὃς ἐβασίλευσεν Ἀσσυρίων ἐν Νινευὶ, τῇ πόλει τῇ μεγάλῃ, ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἀρφαξὰδ, ὃς ἐβασίλευσε Μήδων ἐν Ἐκβατάνοις.» Τωβὶτ, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Βίβλος λόγων Τωβὶτ, τοῦ Τωβιὴλ, τοῦ Ἀνανιὴλ, τοῦ Ἀδουὴλ, τοῦ Γαβαὴλ, ἐκ τοῦ σπέρματος Ἀσεὴλ, ἐκ τῆς φυλῆς Νεφθαλεὶμ, ὃς ᾐχμαλωτεύθη ἐν ἡμέραις Ἐννεμεσάρου τοῦ βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων.» Τοσαῦτα καὶ τὰ μὴ κανονιζόμενα. Τινὲς μέντοι τῶν παλαιῶν εἰρήκασι κανονίζεσθαι παρ' Ἑβραίοις καὶ τὴν Ἐσθήρ· καὶ τὴν μὲν Ῥοὺθ, μετὰ τῶν Κριτῶν ἑνουμένην, εἰς ἓν βιβλίον ἀριθμεῖσθαι· τὴν δὲ Ἐσθὴρ εἰς ἕτερον ἕν· καὶ οὕτω πάλιν εἰς εἴκοσι δύο συμπληροῦσθαι τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν κανονιζομένων παρ' αὐτοῖς βιβλίων. Thus the canonical books of the Old Testament are twenty-two, corresponding with the number of letters in the Hebrew, for they have this many elementary signs. But aside from these there are moreover some other books with the Old Testament, which are not considered canonical, but which are only read to catechumens, which are these: The Wisdom of Solomon, which begins, "Love righteousness, ye rulers of the earth"; The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, which begins "All wisdom cometh from the Lord, and is with him forever"; Esther, which begins "In the second year of the reign of King Artaxerxes the Great, on the first day of Nisan, Mardochaeus the son of Jairus, the son of Semeias, the son of Cisaeus, of the tribe of Benjamin"; Judith, which begins, "In the twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled over the Assyrians in the great city of Nineveh, in the days of Arphaxad, who ruled over the Medes in Ecbatana": Tobit, which begins, "The book of the words of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Ananiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the seed of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali, who in the days of Enemessarus king of the Assyrians." Again, books such as these are not canonical. However, some of the ancients have said that, among the Hebrews, Esther is held to be canonical; and that, even as Ruth is included with the book of Judges, so Esther is also included with some other book, and by this means they would still complete the number of their canonical books at twenty-two.
3. Καὶ τὰ μὲν τῆς Παλαιᾶς ∆ιαθήκης βιβλία, τά τε κανονιζόμενα καὶ τὰ μὴ κανονιζόμενα, τοιαῦτα καὶ τοσαῦτα. Τὰ δὲ τῆς Καινῆς ∆ιαθήκης, πάλιν ὡρισμένα τε καὶ κεκανονισμένα βιβλία, ταῦτα· Κατὰ Ματθαῖον, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Βίβλος γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ.» Κατὰ Μάρκον, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἀρχὴ τοῦ Εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ· καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν τῷ Ἡσαΐᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ· Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου, ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου.» Κατὰ Λουκᾶν, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἐπειδήπερ πολλοὶ ἐπεχείρησαν ἀνατάξασθαι διήγησιν περὶ τῶν πεπληροφορημένων ἐν ἡμῖν πραγμάτων.» Κατὰ Ἰωάννην, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ Λόγος, καὶ ὁ Λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν Θεὸν, καὶ Θεὸς ἦν ὁ Λόγος. Οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν Θεόν. Πάντα δι' αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲν, ὃ γέγονεν.» Πράξεις τῶν ἀποστόλων, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Τὸν μὲν πρῶτον λόγον ἐποιησάμην περὶ πάντων, ὦ Θεόφιλε, ὧν ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς ποιεῖν τε καὶ διδάσκειν.» Καθολικαὶ Ἐπιστολαὶ διαφόρων ἀποστόλων, αἱ πᾶσαι ἑπτὰ, εἰς ἓν ἀριθμούμεναι βιβλίον. Ἰακώβου μία, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἰάκωβος Θεοῦ καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δοῦλος, ταῖς δώδεκα φυλαῖς ταῖς ἐν τῇ διασπορᾷ, χαίρειν.» Πέτρου δύο· καὶ τῆς μὲν πρώτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Πέτρος ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς Πόντου, Γαλατίας, Καππαδοκίας, Ἀσίας, καὶ Βιθυνίας, κατὰ πρόγνωσιν Θεοῦ Πατρὸς, ἐν ἁγιασμῷ Πνεύματος, εἰς ὑπακοὴν καὶ ῥαντισμὸν αἵματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη.» Τῆς δὲ δευτέρας ἡ ἀρχή· «Συμεὼν Πέτρος καὶ ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῖς ἰσότιμον ἡμῖν λαχοῦσι πίστιν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.» Ἰωάννου τρεῖς· καὶ τῆς μὲν πρώτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Ὃ ἦν ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, ὃ ἀκηκόαμεν, ὃ ἑωράκαμεν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν, καὶ αἱ χεῖρες ἡμῶν ἐψηλάφησαν, περὶ τοῦ λόγου τῆς ζωῆς.» Τῆς δὲ δευτέρας ἡ ἀρχή· «Ὁ πρεσβύτερος ἐκλεκτῇ κυρίᾳ καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις αὐτῆς, οὓς ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ.» Τῆς δὲ τρίτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Ὁ πρεσβύτερος Γαΐῳ τῷ ἀγαπητῷ, ὃν ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ.» Ἰούδα μία, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἰούδας Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δοῦλος, ἀδελφὸς δὲ Ἰακώβου, τοῖς ἐν Θεῷ Πατρὶ ἠγαπημένοις, καὶ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ τετηρημένοις κλητοῖς.» Παύλου ἀποστόλου ἐπιστολαὶ ιδʹ, εἰς ἓν ἀριθμούμεναι βιβλίον. Ἐν πρώτῃ, ἡ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος δοῦλος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, κλητὸς Ἀπόστολος, ἀφωρισμένος εἰς Εὐαγγέλιον Θεοῦ.» Πρὸς Κορινθίους δύο· καὶ τῆς μὲν πρώτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος κλητὸς Ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ, καὶ Σωσθένης ὁ ἀδελφὸς, τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ.» Τῆς δὲ δευτέρας ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ, καὶ Τιμόθεος ὁ ἀδελφὸς, τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ.» Τετάρτη πρὸς Γαλάτας, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος ἀπόστολος οὐκ ἀπ' ἀνθρώπων, οὐδὲ δι' ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ Θεοῦ καὶ Πατρός.» Πέμπτη πρὸς Ἐφεσίους, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ, τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν Ἐφέσῳ, καὶ πιστοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.» Ἕκτη πρὸς Φιλιππησίους, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος καὶ Τιμόθεος, δοῦλοι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, πᾶσι τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν Φιλίπποις, σὺν ἐπισκόποις καὶ διακόνοις.» Ἑβδόμη πρὸς Κολασσαεῖς, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ, καὶ Τιμόθεος ὁ ἀδελφὸς, τοῖς ἐν Κολασσαῖς ἁγίοις καὶ πιστοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.» Πρὸς Θεσσαλονικεῖς δύο· καὶ τῆς μὲν πρώτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος καὶ Σιλουανὸς καὶ Τιμόθεος, τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ Θεσσαλονικέων, ἐν Θεῷ Πατρὶ καὶ Κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ.» Τῆς δὲ δευτέρας ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος καὶ Σιλουανὸς καὶ Τιμόθεος, τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ Θεσσαλονικέων, ἐν Θεῷ Πατρὶ ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ.» ∆εκάτη ἡ πρὸς Ἑβραίους, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως πάλαι ὁ Θεὸς λαλήσας τοῖς πατράσιν ἐν τοῖς προφήταις, ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν Υἱῷ.» Πρὸς Τιμόθεον δύο· καὶ τῆς μὲν πρώτης ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, κατ' ἐπιταγὴν Θεοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τῆς ἐλπίδος ἡμῶν, Τιμοθέῳ γνησίῳ τέκνῳ ἐν πίστει.» Τῆς δὲ δευτέρας ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ, κατ' ἐπαγγελίαν ζωῆς τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, Τιμοθέῳ ἀγαπητῷ τέκνῳ.» Τρισκαιδεκάτη, ἡ πρὸς Τίτον, ἧς ἀρχή· «Παῦλος δοῦλος Θεοῦ, ἀπόστολος δὲ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, κατὰ πίστιν ἐκλεκτῶν Θεοῦ, καὶ ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας, τῆς κατ' εὐσέβειαν ἐν ἐλπίδι ζωῆς αἰωνίου.» Τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτη, ἡ πρὸς Φιλήμονα, ἧς ἡ ἀρχή· «Παῦλος δέσμιος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ Τιμόθεος ὁ ἀδελφὸς, Φιλήμονι τῷ ἀγαπητῷ καὶ συνεργῷ ἡμῶν.» Ἐπὶ τούτοις ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου τοῦ θεολόγου, δεχθεῖσα ὡς ἐκείνου καὶ ἐγκριθεῖσα ὑπὸ πάλαι ἁγίων καὶ πνευματοφόρων Πατέρων, οὗ ἡ ἀρχή· «Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἣν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ Θεὸς δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει, καὶ ἐσήμανεν, ἀποστείλας διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννῃ.» Such are the books belonging to the Old Testament, including those which are canonical and those which are not canonical. And for the New Testament there are likewise designated canonical books, which are these: [The Gospel] according to Matthew, which begins "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, son of Abraham"; according to Mark, which begins "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God: even as it is written in Isaiah the prophet, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, who shall prepare thy way"; according to Luke, which begins "Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to draw up a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us"; according to John, which begins "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that hath been made"; the Acts of the Apostles, which begins "The former treatise I made, O Theophilus, concerning all that Jesus began both to do and to teach"; The Catholic Epistles of various apostles, seven in all, counted as one book: one of James, which begins "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are of the Dispersion, greeting"; two of Peter, of which the first begins "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied"; and the second begins "Simon Peter, and apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained a like precious faith with us in the righteousness of our Lord Jesus Christ"; three of John, and the first begins, "That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, and our hands handled, concerning the Word of life"; and the second begins "The elder unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love in truth"; and the third begins "The elder unto Gaius the beloved, whom I love in truth"; one of Jude, which begins, "Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are called, beloved in God the Father, and kept in Jesus Christ"; fourteen epistles of the Apostle Paul, counted as one book: the first one being to the Romans, which begins, "Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called as an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God"; two to the Corinthians, and the first one begins "Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth"; and the second begins "Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth"; the fourth is to the Galatians, which begins "Paul, an apostle not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father"; the fifth is to the Ephesians, which begins " Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus"; the sixth to the Philippians, which begins "Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, to all the saints who are in Philippi, with the bishops and deacons"; the seventh to the Colossians, which begins "Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, and Timothy our brother, to the saints and faithful brethren in Christ who are in Colossae"; to the Thessalonians there are two, the first one beginning "Paul, and Silvanus, and Timothy, unto the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ"; and the second beginning "Paul, and Silvanus, and Timothy, unto the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ"; the tenth is to the Hebrews, which begins, "God, having of old time spoken unto the fathers in the prophets by divers portions and in divers manners, hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in a Son"; to Timothy there are two, and the first begins "Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ according to the commandment of God our Saviour, and Christ Jesus our hope, unto Timothy, my true child in faith"; and the second begins "Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus, to Timothy, my beloved child"; the thirteenth is to Titus, which begins, "Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of Godís elect, and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness, in hope of eternal life"; the fourteenth is the one to Philemon, which begins "Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother, to Philemon our beloved and fellow-worker"; and after this there is the Apocalypse of John the Divine, as being the one received and approved by the saints of old and bearing the Spirit of the fathers, beginning, "The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon come to pass, and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John."
4. Τοσαῦτα καὶ τὰ τῆς Καινῆς ∆ιαθήκης βιβλία τά γε κανονιζόμενα, καὶ τῆς πίστεως ἡμῶν οἱονεὶ ἀκροθίνια ἢ ἄγκυραι καὶ ἐρείσματα· ὡς παρ' αὐτῶν τῶν ἀποστόλων τοῦ Χριστοῦ, τῶν καὶ συγγενομένων ἐκείνῳ καὶ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ μαθητευθέντων, γραφέντα καὶ ἐκτεθέντα. Such then are the canonical books of the New Testament, which are the firstfruits and fixed anchor of our faith; for they are written and set forth by the apostes of Christ, who were as his own kindred and who were taught by him.
74. Τὰ μὲν οὖν ἀντιλεγόμενα τῆς Παλαιᾶς προείπομεν μὲν καὶ πρότερον, ὥς ἐστι Σοφία Σολομῶντος, καὶ Σοφία Ἰησοῦ υἱοῦ Συρὰχ, καὶ Ἐσθὴρ, καὶ Ἰουδὶθ, καὶ Τωβίτ· σὺν ἐκείνοις δὲ καὶ ταῦτα ἠρίθμηνται· Μακκαβαϊκὰ βιβλία δʹ, Πτολεμαϊκὰ, Ψαλμοὶ καὶ Ὠδὴ Σολομῶντος, Σωσάννα. Ταῦτα τὰ ἀντιλεγόμενα τῆς Παλαιᾶς ∆ιαθήκης. Among the disputed books of the Old Testament, of which we spoke previously, such as the Wisdom of Solomon, the Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, and Esther and Judith and Tobit, also these are to be counted: the four books of the Maccabees, Ptolemaic books, the Psalms and Odes of Solomon, Susanna. These are disputed books of the Old Testament.


REMARKS

This list is clearly based upon the earlier canon lists of the Alexandrian fathers, in which the canon of the Old Testament is restricted to the Hebrew books (minus Esther). It also explains, as in the earlier lists, how these books are counted as twenty-two among the Jews. But the scripture quotations from the beginning of each book have been supplied by someone who was not very familiar with the subject. He does not realize that in the earlier catalogues the "two books of Esdras" are Ezra and Nehemiah, and so for the beginning of the first book he quotes from the apocryphal First Esdras of the Septuagint. In his quotation of the beginning of Daniel, he quotes from the apocryphal Story of Susanna which was added to the beginning of Daniel in Thedotian's Greek version. But then, towards the end of the treatise (§ 74 in Migne) he lists the Story of Susanna as a disputed book belonging to the same class as Tobit, Judith, etc. Regarding Esther, he seems to be unaware of the difference between the Hebrew book and the expanded version in the Septuagint. The decision to place it with the Apocryphal books may be due to the fact that this particular redaction of the book was regarded as inauthentic.

In the list of Apocryphal books that follows, we notice that the books of Maccabees are not mentioned; but they are mentioned later as belonging to the class of "disputed" books (Migne § 74) together with Susanna and such non-canonical works as the Psalms and Odes of Solomon.

In the list of New Testament books, Hebrews is listed tenth among the fourteen epistles of Paul, between Thessalonians and the Pastorals. This is the order of the epistles in the great uncial manuscripts of the fourth and fifth centuries (Vaticanus, Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus), and it reflects the judgment of the Eastern churches that Hebrews definitely belonged with the epistles of Paul.

We might wonder why the first sentence is quoted for each of the books. Perhaps it was to prevent confusion, because some writers used different names for some of the books (especially for the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah), and there were non-canonical recensions of Daniel and Esther which could be distinguished by such quotations. But if this was the purpose, the author has only increased the confusion by quoting from the wrong books and recensions, as noted above. It may be that the author has quoted the first sentence of each book merely in imitation of Origen, who for each book of the OT mentioned the Jewish name for it, based upon its opening words in the Hebrew text.

In general, the quotations correspond to the text of old uncial manuscripts, as opposed to the medieval cursives. The most interesting variant is in the quotation of 2 Peter 1:1, which reads "righteousness of our Lord Jesus Christ" (compare Codex Siniaticus, "righteousness of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ") instead of the usual "righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ."