Greek New Testament
Links updated May 2010
αμαθεστατε και κακε, αφες τον παλαιον, μη μεταποιει
(Fool and knave, can't you leave the old reading alone and not alter it!)
—The complaint of a scribe, written in the
margin of Codex Vaticanus at Heb. 1:3.
- bibelwissenschaft.de. Website of the German Bible Society. Full text of the Nestle-Aland edition of the Greek New Testament, and the Septuagint of Rahlfs.
- The Online Parallel Bible Project. By John Isett. Full text of several editions of the Greek NT, including an interlinear Westcott-Hort with parsing and a concordance. Also has the full text of the Septuagint.
- The Unbound Bible. At Biola University. The Greek New Testament in four different editions. Uses the "symbol" font that comes with Windows so that everyone can see the Greek. At this site you can also search the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate and several English translations. The Greek texts (in unicode characters) can also be downloaded in zipped archive format.
- The Online Greek Bible. A very pleasantly designed site that presents the Nestle-Aland (26) Greek text in a variety of font options, including the Symbol font (already installed on your machine with Windows). Click on any word to see it parsed and defined. The search function is very sophisticated.
- Logos Bible. Sponsored by Logos Bible Software. Texts of Stephens, Elzevir, Scrivener, Tischendorf, Robinson-Pierpont, and Westcott-Hort. The text of Scrivener (giving readings presumed to underlie the KJV) is given in two forms: one without notes, and another with notes giving its variations from the readings of the English Revised Version of 1881.
- The SBL Greek New Testament, edited by Michael W. Holmes, and published by Logos Bible Software.
- Greek New Testament. By Tony Fisher. The Nestle-Aland (26) Greek New Testament in searchable images. No need for Greek fonts on your machine. Search for words by base or inflected form, and by tense, voice and mood. Also here.
- Olive Tree Greek New Testament. Search four different editions of the Greek New Testament: 1991 Byzantine Greek Text; Westcott and Hort; Stephens 1550, and Scrivener's 1894 Textus Receptus. Also has interlinears and texts with grammatical tags.
- Greek New Testament Editions in downloadable zipped files (you will need an unzip utility to open them) provided by Vincent Broman. Includes transcriptions of many historic and modern editions.
- The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform, edited by Maurice Robinson (revised edition, 2005).
- Bible Database Online Bibles. By Brent Maurer. Full text of Stephens, Scrivener, Wescott & Hort, and the Septuagint, in chapters. Requires unicode text display support from your browser. If you don't have this and are using Microsoft Internet Explorer, the "install on demand" function will prompt you to get it. Go ahead and download the unicode support.
- The text of S.P. Tregelles can be downloaded in one large file from the website of Tyndale House, Cambridge.
- The Interlinear Literal Translation of the Greek New Testament (1894).
- The texts of Westcott and Hort (1881), Scrivener (1894), and Stephanus (1550) are online at the Bible Gateway.
- Wordsworth’s New Testament — The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus in the Original Greek, with Introductions and notes by Christopher Wordsworth; The Four Gospels (1859, also here and here); Acts (1860, also here); St. Paul's Epistles (1859); The General Epistles and Book of Revelation (1860). Also, St. Paul's Epistles, The General Epistles, The Book of Revelation, and Indexes (1867).
- Alford's Greek Testament with text-critical and exegetical notes is online in page images at Google Books, in 4 volumes:
vol. 1 (1849);
vol. 2 (1877);
vol. 3 (1865);
vol. 4 (1878).
- Westcott and Hort — vol.1 (text); vol 2 (Introduction; Appendix).
- Tischendorf — Novum Testamentum Graece; Ad Antiquissimos Testes Denuo Recensuit; Apparatum Criticum Omni Studio Perfectum; Apposuit Commentationem Isagogicam; Praetexuit Constantinus Tischendorf. Editio Octava Critica Maior (Leipzig, 1869-1894):
vol. 1 (1869, also here);
vol. 2 (1872, also here);
vol. 3 (1894, also here).
The volumes are also available at the Internet Archive:
- Scrivener and Nestle, 1906. F.H.A. Scrivener and Eberhard Nestle, Η ΚΑΙΝΗ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ. Novum Testamentum: textus Stephanici, A.D. 1550, cum variis lectionibus editionum Bezae, Elzeviri, Lachmanni, Tischendorfii, Tregellesii, Wescott-Hortii, Versionis Anglicanae Emendatorum. Accedunt parallela s. Scripturae loca. Editio Quarta, ab Eb. Nestle Correcta. London: George Bell and Sons, 1906.
- Greek text underlying the Revised Version of 1881 — Η Καινη Διαθηκη. The Greek Testament with the Readings Adopted by the Revisers of the Authorised Version, and with References in the Margin to Parallel Passages of the Old and the New Testament, edited by E. Palmer (Oxford, 1882).
- Wilson's 'Emphatic Diaglott' — The Emphatic Diaglott: Containing the Original Greek Text of what is Commonly Styled the New Testament (according to the Recension of Dr. J. J. Griesbach) with an Interlineary Word for Word English Translation; a New Emphatic Version, Based on the Interlineary Translation, on the Renderings of Eminent Critics, and on the various readings of the Vatican Manuscript, etc. By Benjamin Wilson (New York: Fowler & Wells, 1865).
- Hansell's edition of the old uncial mss. — Edward H. Hansell, ed., Novum Testamentum Gręce. Antiquissimorum Codicum Textus in Ordine Parallelo Dispositi, Accedit Collatio Codicis Sinaitici (Oxford, 1864), in three volumes: vol. 1 (Gospels); vol. 2 (Acts, Epistles, Revelation); vol. 3 (Preface, Notes, and Appendices).
- Greenfield's annotated Greek Testament — Η Καινη Διαθηκη. Novum Testamentum ad Exemplar Millianum, cum Emendationibus et Lectionibus Griesbachii, praecipuis vocibus ellipticis, thematibus omnium vocum difficiliorum, atque locis scripturae parallelis. Studio et labore Gulielmi Greenfield. Hanc editionem primam Americanam, summa cura recensuit, atque mendis quam plurimis expurgavit, Josephus P. Engles, A.M. Philadelphia: Henry Perkins, 1850.
- Bloomfield's Greek Testament — Η Καινη Διαθηκη. The Greek Testament with English Notes, Critical, Philological, and Exegetical, etc., by the Rev. S.T. Bloomfield. First American from the Second London Edition (Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1837), in two volumes: vol. 1; vol. 2.
- Griesbach's annotated text — Novum Testamentum Graece. Textum ad Fidem Codicum Versionem et Patrum Recensuit et Lectionis Varietatem adjecit D. Jo. Jac. Greisbach. London: Mackinlay and Martin, 1809-1810. (a reprint of Griesbach's last edition of 1805.) In two volumes: vol. 1 (Gospels); vol. 2 (Acts, Epistles, Revelation).
- The Resultant Greek Testament, edited by Richard F. Weymouth (1892).
- Novum Testamentum graece et germanice, edited by Eberhard Nestle (fifth edition; Stuttgart, 1906).
- BFBS edition of 1904: Η ΚΑΙΝΗ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ. Text with Critical Apparatus. Published by the British and Foreign Bible Society in Connection with Its Centenary (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1904). The original Nestle text, with an apparatus prepared by the British editors, indicating “every variation of any importance … from (1) the Textus Receptus, and (2) the Greek Text which avowedly or inferentially underlies the English Revised Version of 1881” (Preface). Also here.
- Other online texts are listed at The Greek New Testament Gateway by Dr. Mark Goodacre, in his New Testament Gateway site.
- LOCAL Textual Criticism of the Greek New Testament. Collations of critical editions and a number of helpful articles.
- Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. By Sir Frederic Kenyon. Complete book online (fourth edition, 1939). This was the standard introductory text-book on textual criticism used in seminaries before the appearance of Metzger's Text of the New Testament. A comprehensive introduction to the materials and methods of textual criticism. Slightly dated, but still very useful. The third edition (1897) is also online at Google Books here.
- S. P. Tregelles’ Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament — Samuel Prideaux Tregelles, An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, with Analyses, etc., of the Respective Books, published as vol. 4 of the 10th edition of Horne's Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures (London, 1856). Also here.
- An Account of the Printed Text of the Greek New Testament: with Remarks on its Revision upon Critical Principles, by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles (London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1854). Also here, and at Google Books here and here.
- A History of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, by Marvin R. Vincent (New York: MacMillan, 1899). Also here and here.
- An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament by Benjamin B. Warfield (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1899).
- Einführung in das griechische Neue Testament by Eberhard Nestle, 2nd ed. (Göttingen, 1899).
- Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the Greek New Testament by Eberhard Nestle, translated from the second edition by William Edie, and edited with a preface by Allan Menzies (London: Williams and Norgate, 1901).
- Hort's Introduction — F.J.A. Hort, The New Testament in the Original Greek, the Text Revised by Brooke Foss Westcott D.D. and Fenton John Anthony Hort D.D.; vol. 2, Introduction and Appendix. 2nd ed. (London: MacMillan and Co., 1896). The first edition (1882) is here.
- Ellicott and Palmer on the Greek text of the Revised Version — Charles J. Ellicott and Edwin Palmer, The Revisers and the Greek Text of the New Testament, by two members of the New Testament Company (London: Macmillan, 1882). Chiefly in response to J.W. Burgon's attack in the Quarterly Review.
- A Companion to the Greek Testament and the English Version, by Philip Schaff (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1883). Also here and here; and at the Internet Archive here.
- Principles of Textual Criticism: with their Application to the Old and New Testaments, by J. Scott Porter (London: Simms and McIntyre, 1848).
- Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament and the Ancient Manuscripts which Contain It: Chiefly Addressed to Those Who Do Not Read Greek, by F.H. Scrivener (1875).
- A Course of Developed Criticism on Passages of the New Testament Materially Affected by Various Readings, by Thomas Sheldon Green (1856).
- Orme's ‘Memoir of the Controversy Respecting the Three Heavenly Witnesses’ — Memoir of the Controversy Respecting the Three Heavenly Witnesses, I John V. 7: Including Critical Notices of the Principal Writers on Both Sides of the Discussion, by Criticus [William Orme]. A New Edition, with Notes and an Appendix by Ezra Abbot. Boston: Noyes, Holmes, and Co., 1872. The work "consists of a series of articles which originally appeared in the Congregational Magazine for 1829, under the signature of 'Criticus,' and were published in London in a separate volume in 1830." (Preface)
- Scrivener's edition of Codex Bezae — Bezae Codex Cantabrigiensis: Being an Exact copy, in Ordinary Type, of the Celebrated Uncial Graeco-Latin Manuscript of the Four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles ... Edited with a Critical Introduction, Annotations, and Facsimiles by Frederick H. Scrivener (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co., 1864). Also here and here.
- Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis: quattuor Evangelia et Actus apostolorum complectens graece et latine (Cambridge, 1899): vol. 1 (Matthew, John); vol. 2 (Luke, Mark, Acts). A good-quality photographic facsimile of the entire manuscript.
- Codex Bezae from the Cambridge Digital Library, University of Cambridge. High-resolution images of the entire manuscript.
- The Text of the New Testament by Kirsopp Lake (4th ed.; London, 1908). also here.
- S. W. Whitney, The Revisers' Greek Text : a Critical Examination of Certain Readings, Textual and Marginal, in the Original Greek of the New Testament Adopted by the Late Anglo-American Revisers (Boston, 1892): vol. 1; vol. 2.
- The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism. By Robert B. Waltz. This is the best site on the web for up-to-date information on textual criticism.
- The Old Testament Text and the New Testament Text. By Philip Comfort. A very good introduction to text-critical materials and methods. This is the first two chapters of Comfort's book, Essential Guide to Bible Versions.
- Textual Criticism - An Introductory Survey. By James W. Naumann. Provides an introductory look at the science of textual criticism and its place in orthodox theology.
- TC Journal. Here are many interesting scholarly articles and book reviews by various authors in the field of textual criticism.
- The critical apparatus of S.P. Tregelles can be viewed in large page images at the website of Tyndale House, Cambridge.
- Codex Sinaiticus. The complete manuscript online in images, courtesy of the British Library in London.
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. A resource created by an association of scholars headed by Daniel Wallace of Dallas Theological Seminary. The site has page images of several important manuscripts, from facsimile editions (including Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Vaticanus), along with scans of some less important miniscules.
- Student's Guide to New Testament Textual Variants. By Bruce Terry. Introductory essays and many examples of various readings of the manuscripts in English, for students who do not know Greek. Appended is a long essay defending the authenticity of the Long Ending Of Mark on stylistic grounds.
- The Authenticity of Mark 16:9-20. By Jim Snapp II, at the Curtisville Christian Church in Elwood, Indiana. A good summary of the text-critical issues surrounding the end of Mark. Snapp concludes that the ending is original. Also here.
- The Lost End of Mark. By Burnett H. Streeter. Chapter 12 from Streeter's book The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (1924).
- Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts. By Timothy Seid. A good introduction to the manuscripts and methods of textual criticism. Escape the cramped frames of this site by entering and navigating from the index page.
- Duke Papyrus Archive. From the special collections library at Duke University. Good articles on papyrus manuscripts, and the whole Duke collection in images.
- Griechische Papyri der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung. Very large and sharp images of the hundreds of papyrus fragments at the Institut für Papyrologie of the University of Heidelberg.
- Rylands Papyri. High-resolution images from the collection of the John Rylands University Library in Manchester.
- Bible Links Page. By Wieland Willker. This page is especially useful for the many links to images of the Papyrus manuscripts.
- Codex Vaticanus B/03. A full description and history of the famous codex, by Wieland Willker. (Don't miss Willker's page on the scribal note at Hebrews 1:3.)
- Erasmus and the Textus Receptus. By William W. Combs, in the Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 1 (Spring 1996): 35-53.
- Textual Criticism discussion board at Yahoo Groups, moderated by Wieland Willker.
- Evangelical Textual Criticism Blog. By several academic contributors who show little interest in things ‘evangelical.’ Apparently here the word means something like ‘not necessarily anti-Christian,‘ or ‘not self-consciously atheistic’ (as in, ‘Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society’).
- The 'Harder Reading' in Textual Criticism: An Application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. By Eugene Nida. An interesting article from The Bible Translator 32/1 (Jan. 1981), pp. 101-107.
- Textual Criticism of the Bible. By Dr. Curt Daniel, pastor of the Reformed Bible Church in Springfield, Illinois.
- Varianten Textus receptus versus Nestle-Aland. By Dieter Zimmer. An extensive list of translatable variations between the TR and the Nestle-Aland text, in German.
- Some Second Thoughts on the Majority Text. By Dr. Daniel B. Wallace (Dallas Theological Seminary).
- The Majority Text and the Original Text: Are they Identical? By Dr. Daniel B. Wallace.
- Inspiration, Preservation, and New Testament Textual Criticism. By Dr. Daniel B. Wallace.
- The Development of the New Testament Text. By Jim Snapp II at the Curtisville Christian Church in Elwood, Indiana. A good discussion of text-types, with helpful diagrams showing their relationships.
- Medieval and Renaissance Book Production - Manuscript Books. By Richard W. Clement. Also here. A very helpful introduction to the production of manuscripts in Medieval times.
- Review of Gamble's Books and Readers in the Early Church. By James Adair, in TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism.
- e-Catena. By Peter Kirby. References to the New Testament culled from the Ante-Nicene Fathers.
- Digital Nestle-Aland Prototype. Electronic form of Nestle-Aland with apparatus, provided online by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research at the University of Münster. Currently the four Gospels and the Epistles of John are online.
- New Testament Transcripts Prototype. Important Greek manuscripts of the New Testament (e.g. Vaticanus, Sinaiticus, Papyrus 45), as transcribed by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research at the University of Münster. Currently the four Gospels and the Epistles of John are online. The interface allows users to compare manuscripts, with automatic highlighting of differences.
- Papyrus 52. Here is a nice page exhibiting the earliest known fragment of the New Testament - a scrap of papyrus dated about AD 125 by scholars, from a manuscript of the Gospel according to John.
- Papyrus 46. 60 pages of the manuscript online in high-resolution images, from the University of Michigan. See also the excellent Introduction to Papyrus 46 on the same site.
- An Online Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels. By Wieland Willker. Four large PDF files, an introduction, and appendixes. Students will find this resource useful.
- Text and Tradition: The Role of New Testament Manuscripts in Early Christian Studies. By Bart D. Ehrman. These two lectures will serve as examples of how textual criticism is practiced by liberal scholars who (like Ehrman) combine it with redaction criticism. The second lecture is here.
- A Review of Bart Ehrman's recent book Misquoting Jesus. By Jim Snapp II. Discusses the scholarly weakness and modernistic bias of Ehrman's work.
- A selection of articles and reviews from The Bible Translator. Many links to articles dealing with textual criticism, compiled by J.L.H. Krans at the University of Amsterdam.
- Online Database of New Testament Manuscripts. By Michael Jones at the University of Cambridge. A database that allows you to find all papyrus and uncial manuscripts that contain a particular verse. The data was provided by Vincent Broman here.
- The Habits of New Testament Copyists: Singular Readings in the Early Fragmentary Papyri of John. By Peter M. Head. Article published in Biblica 85 (2004). Discusses the role that singular readings have played in the analysis of scribal habits, and examines singular readings in the early fragmentary papyri of John's Gospel. Confirms earlier research showing that most singular readings are mere variations of spelling or word-order, but substitutions and harmonisations to context are also common. Omissions are more common than additions.
- Graeco-Roman Papyrus Documents from Egypt (Athena Review 2/2). An introduction to the papyri found in Egypt. Includes details on the various types of documents found and links to major collections online.
- The Greek New Testament by Richard Wilson. The text of Nestle-Aland with the most important textual variants.
In Favor of the Majority Text
- A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Vol. I and Vol. II, by F.H.A. Scrivener (Fourth Ed., George Bell & Sons, 1894). Page images only. A classic introduction to textual criticism.
- The Last Twelve Verses of the Gospel According to S. Mark Vindicated Against Recent Critical Objectors and Established, by John William Burgon (London, 1871 ). Page images only.
- The Causes of the Corruption of the Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels, by John William Burgon (London, 1896). Page images only.
- The Revision Revised, by John William Burgon (London, John Murray, 1883).
- The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels Vindicated & Established, by the late John William Burgon, B.D., Dean of Chichester, arranged, completed, and edited by Edward Miller, M.A. (London: George Bell and Sons, 1896).
- Codex B and Its Allies: A Study and an Indictment, Part I and Part II, by H.C. Hoskier (London, 1914). Page images only. a very painstaking comparison of Codex Vaticanus with Codex Sinaiticus, in which the two are shown to have many significant disagreements. Hoskier attempts to demonstrate that Vaticanus presents a text which has been conformed to the Coptic versions.
- The Identity of the New Testament Text. This is a complete book in defense of the Majority text by Dr. Wilbur N. Pickering. To view the chapters online, click on the HTML file links. Also here.
- Translations and the Greek Text. By Leland M. Haines. Haines (a Mennonite layman) presents a detailed critique of the eclectic method, with quotations from Pickering, Sturz, Robinson, and other majority text advocates.
- New Testament Textual Criticism: The Case for Byzantine Priority. By Dr. Maurice A. Robinson (Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary). This is the most scholarly article on the web in defense of the Majority Text.
- Crossing Boundaries in New Testament Textual Criticism: Historical Revisionism and the Case of Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener. By Dr. Maurice A. Robinson. A response to Daniel B. Wallace, "Historical Revisionism and the Majority Text Theory: The Cases of F. H. A. Scrivener and Herman C. Hoskier," NTSt 41 (1995) 280-285. Robinson discusses in detail the text-critical views of Scrivener, and argues that Scrivener is rightly considered a "Majority Text" advocate.
- The Biblical Text and the Reconstructive Task. Thematic issue of Chalcedon Report, June 1997.
- The Traditional text. A Brief Summary of John William Burgon's The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels Vindicated and Established (1896), by Rev. D. A. Waite. A useful overview of Burgon's criticism of Westcott and Hort.
- The Providential Preservation of the Greek Text of the New Testament. By Rev. W. MacLean (1983). A good summary of arguments from books of Dean Burgon and Edward Hills.
- An Inquiry into the Integrity of the Greek Vulgate, or Received Text of the New Testament. By Frederick Nolan (London, 1815). An antiquated book, not to be relied upon for information, but of historical interest as an early defense of the Textus Receptus, in response to Griesbach.
Web directories for textual criticism:
“Perhaps those who pity the grammarian do not know that he finds joy in his task and is sustained by the conviction that his work is necessary.” —A.T. Robertson, A Grammar of the New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Nashville: Broadman, 1934), x.
- Liddell-Scott Lexicon of Classical Greek — Greek-English Lexicon, based on the German Work of Francis Passow, by Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, with corrections and additions ... by Henry Drisler (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1846). Also here, here, here, and here. See also the eighth edition (1897).
- Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek (Clarendon Press: 1940). This is the Liddell-Scott lexicon "revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones." From the Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University. The Perseus Berlin Mirror is sometimes faster, and the alternative search engine and interface at the University of Chicago is better in some respects.
- Thayer's Lexicon of New Testament Greek. The standard scholar's lexicon for many years. Also at the Internet Archive here, and at Google Books here, here, and here.
- Abbott-Smith Lexicon — A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, by George Abbott-Smith (New York: Scribners, 1922). Also here.
- Robinson's Lexicon — A Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament by Edward Robinson (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1850).
- Parkhurst's Lexicon — A Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament: In which the Words and Phrases ... are Distinctly Explained, and the Meanings Assigned to Each Authorized by References to Passages of Scripture, and Frequently ... Confirmed by Citations from the Old Testament, and from the Greek Writers ... by John Parkhurst. Fifth edition (London, 1809).
- English translation of Cremer's Lexicon — Biblico-theological Lexicon of New Testament Greek By Hermann Cremer, translated from the German of the Second Edition, with additional matter and corrections by the author, by William Urwick. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1878. Also available at Google Books is the first English edition of 1872.
- Review of F. Danker's recent revision of the BAGD Greek lexicon, by Abraham J. Malherbe of Yale University Divinity School. (Review of Biblical Literature 10/2002). Interesting discussion of some of the ways in which Danker's revison of this standard reference book (third edition, 2000) shows a "desire not to give offense to some persons in academic circles" who are interested in "inclusiveness," as Malherbe delicately puts it.
- How Have Inclusiveness and Tolerance Affected the Bauer-Danker Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (BDAG)? By Vern S. Poythress. An article from the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 46/4 (Dec. 2003), pp. 577-88. Detailed criticism of Danker's revised edition.
- Greek-Dictionary.net by Bill Mounce.
- Grammar of New Testament Greek by Friedrich Blass, translated by Henry St. John Thackeray (London: MacMillan and Co., 1898). Also at Google Books here. See also the original German work, Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch (1896).
- Moulton's English translation of Winer's Grammar — Georg Benedikt Winer, A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek: Regarded as a Sure Basis for New Testament Exegesis, by Dr. G.B. Winer. Translated from the German, with Large Additions and Full Indices, by Rev. W.F. Moulton, M.A., D.D. First edition (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1870); Third Edition, revised (Ninth English Edition, Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1882), also here.
- A Grammar of New Testament Greek by James Hope Moulton (2nd ed. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1906). See also the first volume of the third edition (Prolegomena, published in 1908) in pdf format here.
- A.T. Robertson's Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1919) — the complete work in one large (50 MB) pdf file is here, and in smaller chapter files in html format here.
- Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek. By Ernest DeWitt Burton. A good concise reference. But to read the Greek here you will need to download and install the free BibleWorks fonts.
- A Complete Concordance of the Greek New Testament (according to the text of Westcott-Hort, with Nestle-Aland variants noted) has been put online by the people at biblos.com.
- A Concordance to the Greek Testament according to the Texts of Westcott and Hort, Tischendorf, and the English Revisers, edited by W.F. Moulton and A.S. Geden (1897).
- A Concordance to the Greek Testament according to the texts of Westcott and Hort, Tischendorf and the English Revisers, edited by W.F. Moulton and A.S. Geden (2nd ed., 1899).
- The Englishman's Greek Concordance of the New Testament, ed. George V. Wigram (6th ed, London: Bagster, 1870). See also the following link ...
- The Englishman's Greek Concordance of the New Testament, 9th edition (1903), with a Concordance of Various Readings and a Vocabulary of NT Greek. In page images at ccel.org.
- Hudson's Concordance — A Critical Greek and English Concordance of the New Testament, prepared by Charles F. Hudson, revised and completed by Ezra Abbott (London: Bagster, 1882).
- Gall's Concordance — An Interpreting Concordance of the New Testament, Shewing the Greek Original of Every Word, with a Glossary, Explaining all the Greek Words of the New Testament, and Giving their Varied Renderings in the Authorised Version, by the Rev. James Gall (Edinburgh: Gall and Inglis, 1863).
- The Englishman's Greek New Testament; giving the Greek text of Stephens 1550, with the various readings of the editions of Elzevir 1624, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Alford, and Wordsworth: together with an interlinear literal translation, and the Authorized Version of 1611. Third ed. (London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1896).
- Trench’s ‘Synonyms of the New Testament’ — Synonyms of the New Testament: Being the Substance of a Course of Lectures Addressed to the Theological Students, King's Colege, London, by Richard Chenevix Trench ... From the third London edition, revised and enlarged (New York: Redfield, 1858). See also the later edition "with some etymological notes by A L Mayhew" (London: Kegan Paul, 1906). A pdf file of the 1880 edition is also available here.
- Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. Also here.
- Remarks on the Synonyms of the New Testament, by John Aug. Henry Tittmann ... Translated by the Rev. Edward Craig (Edinburgh: Thomas Clark, 1833-7): vol. 1; vol. 2.
Other Greek Resources
- LOCAL Biblical Greek. Articles on the subject of Hellenistic and Biblical Greek by Deissmann, Robertson, and Machen, and a bibliography.
- Η Καινη Διαθηκη, εκ της Παλαιας Διαθηκης κατα τους Εβδομηκοντα διερμηνευομενη. Novum testamentum Graecum, Editio Hellenistica, edited by Edward W. Grinfield (London: Pickering, 1843), in two volumes: volume 1 (Gospels and Acts), volume 2 (Epistles and Rev., followed by a table of OT quotations). Highly useful for lexical studies, quoting parallel phrases from the Septuagint, Philo, and other contemporary sources under each verse of the Greek New Testament. See also the supplementary volumes, entitled Scholia Hellenistica in Novum Testamentum / Philone et Josepho Patribus Apostolicis aliisq. Ecclesiae antiquae scriptoribus necnon libris apocryphis maxime depromta; instruxit atque ornavit Novi Testamenti Hellenistice illustrati recens editor (Pickering, 1848), volume 1 (Matthew to 2 Corinthians, also here), volume 2 (Galatians to Revelation, also here).
- Sources of New Testament Greek: Or, the Influence of the Septuagint on the Vocabulary of the New Testament, by H. A. A. Kennedy (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1895). Also here.
- Essays in Biblical Greek by Edwin Hatch (Oxford: Clarendon press, 1889). Also at Google books here.
- The Language of the New Testament, by William Henry Simcox (New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1890).
- The Writers of the New Testament: Their Style and Characteristics, By William Henry Simcox (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1890).
- The Value of the Papyri for New Testament Study. By Frederic E. Blume. A short but interesting discussion, focusing on the history and value of the non-literary papyri.
- Adolph Deissmann and 20th Century Philological Developments in New Testament Greek. By Eric Zeller, a student at The Master's Seminary. Describes at length the work and the influence of Deissmann and reactions against his view of the language of the NT.
- New Light on the New Testament, from Records of the Graeco-Roman Period, by Adolf Deissmann (Edinburgh, 1908).
- Licht vom Osten: das Neue Testament und die neuentdeckten Texte der hellenistisch-römischen Welt, von Adolf Deissmann (Tübingen: Mohr, 1908).
- Bible Studies by Adolf Deissmann, English edition (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1901).
- Did St. Luke Imitate the Septuagint? By Rev. William G. Most. An article from Journal for the Study of the New Testament 15 (1982) pp. 30-41. "Which expressions in the NT are Semitisms? How extensive are they? Are they due to translation or other causes? These and similar questions have occasioned much ingenious research, but, unfortunately, generally accepted results are few."
- Was Mark Written in Aramaic? By Frederick C. Grant. This is chapter 5 of Grant's book, The Earliest Gospel (New York: Abingdon Press, 1943). "the chief content of the Gospels is not Greek in origin, but Semitic. In spite of the exaggerations of earlier scholars ... it is becoming generally recognized today that there is really something unique about the language of the New Testament, and especially of the Synoptic Gospels -- something not to be explained wholly by the parallels found in the Egyptian papyri."
- Is the New Testament Written in 'Holy Ghost' Greek? By Edgar V. McKnight. This is an article from the American Bible Society's journal, The Bible Translator, vol. 16 (1965), pages 87-93. Online in large JPEG page images.
- Marked Syntactical Structures in Biblical Greek in Comparison with Biblical Hebrew, by Alviero Niccacci. An article published in Liber Annuus 43 (1993). Niccacci argues that Biblical Greek (the LXX and to a lesser extent the NT) is an artificial "translation language" as far as the syntax of the verb is concerned. 110 examples are quoted, mostly from the LXX, together with their Hebrew original.
- Egyptian Rubbish-Heaps and the Study of the New Testament. by James Hope Moulton (1914). An informal lecture on the usefulness of the non-literary papyri in our understanding of the language of the New Testament, by a notable scholar. At the bottom of the page are links to five other lectures in the same series.