Biblical Studies in General
Links updated January 2011
- Bibliology: The Bible. By Dr. Greg Herrick. Briefly discusses revelation, inspiration, inerrancy, canonicity, illumination, and interpretation. This is a chapter of Herrick's book, An Introduction to Christian Belief: A Layman's Guide.
- Bible Basics. From the Net Ministries site. This simple introduction to the Bible features an online audio pronouncing dictionary of Bible names.
- Doctrine of the Bible. A good series of lessons from the elders of Valley Bible Church in Lancaster, California. Includes lessons on Revelation, Inspiration, Inerrancy, Canonicity, Transmission, and Translation. Also in pdf format here.
Easton's Bible Dictionary,
Nave's Topical Bible,
Word Search (KJV, RSV, ASV, YLT), and
Verse Lookup. Basic learning and reference resources provided by Softword Technology, in very nicely designed interfaces.
- The Origin and History of the Bible. By Fred Ragland, at the Christian Military Fellowship.
- How We Got Our Bible. By Mike Vlach, Pastor of Literature Ministries at Indian Hills Community Church, Lincoln, Nebraska.
- Concise Old Testament Survey. By J. Hampton Keathley III, Th.M., at the Biblical Studies Foundation.
- Old Testament Teacher's Guide. A series of outlines and other classroom handouts, provided by the Division of Student Ministry of the Baptist General Convention of Texas.
- The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. A statement of principles endorsed by many conservative leaders at a meeting in Chicago, October 1978.
- A Guide to Bible Study, by John William McGarvey, President of the College of the Bible, Lexington, Kentucky (Cleveland, Ohio: The Reading Committee, 1897). A helpful conservative survey of the Bible by a Disciples of Christ scholar. Provided online by Dr. Hans Rollmann at the Memorial University of Newfoundland.
- Helpful Hints on Reading the Bible. By Dr. Curt Daniel of Reformed Bible Church in Springfield, Illinois. Gives some good advice on "out of the ordinary ways to help get more out of the Bible."
- How to read the Book. By Rev. R. Schouten. An article from Clarion magazine, 1992. Very good discussion of problems faced by laymen in studying the Bible, with much specific advice on methods and resources.
- The Bible through the Ages. By Richard D. Balge. What is the origin of the books we have today in the Bible? What are variants? How do you interpret the Bible? How did the many different versions develop? Professor Balge answers these questions and many others as he relates the history of the Bible.
- Six sermons on the Sure Word of God. By Geoffrey Thomas, minister of Alfred Place Baptist Church in Aberystwyth, Wales. An informal and engaging introduction to the Bible as the Word of God, with much practical advice on understanding and studying it.
- New Testament Introduction. By Louis Berkhof (Eerdmans, 1915). Complete book online. A conservative Reformed introduction to the New Testament. The book is also here at CCEL, but the Greek font doesn't display properly.
- The New Testament and Its Context. By Dr. Barry D. Smith of Atlantic Baptist University in Canada. Conservative and scholarly introductions to each book of the New Testament, with an emphasis on the Judaic historical context, and some interesting introductory essays on special topics. See also Smith's resources on Pauline Studies, The Intertestamental Period, The Life of Jesus, The Letter to the Hebrews, and The Gospels.
- The Bible: Can we trust a book written 2000 years ago? By the Rev. Dick Tripp in Lyttleton, New Zealand. A very nice presentation that will remove the usual "skeptical" hindrances to taking the Bible seriously. This is one of eighteen articles on Rev. Tripp's excellent Exploring Christianity site.
- A General Historico-Critical Introduction to the Old Testament, by H. A. C. Hävernick, translated by W.L. Alexander (Edinburgh, 1852). See also the original German of this work, Handbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung in das Alte Testament (Erlangen, 1836, 39, 49) online in three volumes: vol. 1; vol.2; vol.3.
- The Doctrine of Sacred Scripture by George T. Ladd. 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1883): vol. 1; vol. 2.
- An Introduction to the Old Testament by Charles H. H. Wright (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1890). A conservative treatment, from the Theological Educator series edited by W. Robertson Nicoll.
- Keil's Introduction to the Old Testament — Carl Friedrich Keil, Manual of Historico-critical Introduction to the Old Testament. 2 vols. (1882): vol. 1; vol. 2.
- A Compendious Introduction to the Study of the Bible by Thomas Hartwell Horne, 8th ed. (London: Longman, 1847). Also online is the 10th edition, revised and edited by the Rev. John Ayre (London: Longman, 1862).
- Horne’s ‘Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures’ — 10th ed., vol. 1 (1856), a summary of the evidence for the genuiness, authenticity, uncorrupted preservation, and inspiration of the holy Scriptures; 10th ed., vol 3 (1856), a summary of biblical geography and antiquities; 10th ed., vol. 4 (1856), An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, with analyses, etc., of the respective books.
- Zahn's Introduction to the New Testament — Theodor Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament ... Translated from the Third German Edition. 3 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1909): vol. 1; vol. 2; vol. 3. The Third German Edition is also online in two volumes: vol.1 (1906); vol.2. Louis Berkhof calls it, "A work of immense learning; the best on N. T. Introduction from the conservative side."
- Theological and Homiletical Introduction to the Old Testament, by Johann Peter Lange, translated by Tayler Lewis and A. Gosman. Moderately conservative.
- Theological and Homiletical Introduction to the New Testament, by Johann Peter Lange, translated by Philip Schaff. Moderately conservative.
- Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, with Historical and Explanatory Notes, by Brooke Foss Westcott (London: Macmillan, 1860, reprinted New York, 1882).
- Bissell’s ‘Historic Origin of the Bible’ — The Historic Origin of the Bible: A Handbook of Principal Facts from the Best Recent Authorities, German and English, by Edwin Cone Bissell. New Edition (New York: Randolph & Co., 1889). A conservative introduction to the history of the Bible. Part I is a history of English versions; Part II is an introduction to the New Testament; Part III is an introduction to the Old Testament.
- The Life and Epistles of St. Paul by William J. Conybeare and John S. Howson. 2nd edition (London: Longman, 1861), vol.1; Seventh edition (1864), vol. 2.
- The Cambridge Companion to the Bible (1893).
- A Companion to Biblical Studies, edited by W. Emery Barnes (Cambridge 1916). This is a revision of the Cambridge Companion to the Bible listed above.
- Michaelis' Introduction to the New Testament — Introduction to the New Testament by John David Michaelis, late professor in the university of Gottingen, etc., translated from the fourth edition of the German, and considerably augmented with notes, and a dissertation on the origin and composition of the three first gospels, by Herbert Marsh (London: Rivington, 1823). In four volumes:
- A Brief History of the Bible. By Bill East, in the Online Resource Book for Medieval Studies.
- Davidson’s Introduction to the Old Testament — Samuel Davidson, An Introduction to the Old Testament, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate, 1862): vol 1; vol. 2. Somewhat liberal for its time.
- An Introduction to the New Testament by Edgar J. Goodspeed (1937). Somewhat liberal introduction by a well-known scholar.
- Moffatt's Introduction to the New Testament — James Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911). Quite liberal in its conclusions, but provides much good information. Also here.
- Moffatt’s ‘Historical New Testament’ — James Moffatt, The Historical New Testament: Being the Literature of the New Testament Arranged in the Order of Its Literary Growth and According to the Dates of the Documents: A New Translation, edited with Prolegomena, Historical Tables, Critical Notes, and an Appendix, by James Moffatt , B.D. Second and revised edition (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1901). A liberal reconstruction of the development of the NT.
- A Primer of the Bible by William H. Bennett (London: Methuen & Co., 1897). Represents liberal opinions.
- English translation of de Wette's Introduction to the New Testament — An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Canonical Books of the New Testament, by Wilhelm Martin L. de Wette, translated from the fifth edition by Frederick Frothingham (Boston: Crosby, Nichols and Co., 1858).
- LOCAL Bible Research. Biblical studies resource site edited by Michael Marlowe. Gives comprehensive and detailed information on Greek and Hebrew texts, ancient and English versions, canon of Scripture, etc., from a conservative point of view.
- Smith's Dictionary of the Bible — Dr. William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible: Comprising Its Antiquities, Biography, Geography, and Natural History; revised and edited by Professor H.B. Hackett, D.D., etc (1881):
Also at Google Books:
- McClintock and Strong's Encyclopedia — Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature edited by John McClintock and James Strong (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1867-89), in ten volumes plus two supplementary volumes:
vol 1 (a-b, 1867, also here);
vol 2 (c-d, 1868, also here, here, and here);
vol 3 (e-g, 1891, also here);
vol 4 (h-j, 1872, also here);
vol 5 (k-mc, 1873, also here);
vol 6 (me-nev, 1876, also here);
vol 7 (new-pes, 1877, also here, here, and here);
vol 8 (pet-re, 1879, also here and here);
vol 9 (rh-st, 1880, also here, here, and here);
vol 10 (su-z, 1881, also here, here, and here);
supplement, vol 1 (a-cn, 1889);
supplement, vol 2 (co-z, 1889).
- Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible — James Hastings, ed., A Dictionary of the Bible, Dealing with its Language, Literature, and Contents (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1898-1905):
A standard scholarly work published at the end of the 19th century. More liberal than Smith's. The first four volumes are also at ccel.org:
- A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, edited by James Hastings (1906): vol. 1 (A-K); vol. 2 (L-Z).
- The Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Edited by Harry Plantinga at Calvin College. An ever-growing site where you can find all kinds of Christian literature, including several Bible commentaries, theological treatises, and much more. Use the site's search utility (using key words) to explore the library. Many of the files are waiting to be proofread and corrected by volunteers.
- The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, a valuable resource at CCEL, is currently available in page images. Use the index page to find articles.
- Encyclopaedia Biblica edited by Thomas Kelly Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black (1899-1903). A scholarly Bible encyclopedia that represents higher critical views of the late nineteenth century.
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. The ISBE is a theologically conservative Bible encyclopedia that was published in 1915.
- Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. A good conservative guide to theological concepts in the Bible.
- Lectionary Studies. By Bryan Findlayson. A complete resource site for teachers using the Revised Common Lectionary. Good material, and well organized.
- Irving Hexham's Concise Dictionary of Religion. By Irving Hexham, at the University of Calgary.
- Dictionary of Theology. From the Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry. 336 theological terms briefly defined.
- Online Essays from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary. A large number of scholarly articles. See especially the subject index under 'Word of God' and 'Bible.'
- Biblical Studies E-Sources. Maintained by Dr. Ted Hildebrandt at Gordon College in Wenham, Mass. A large number of scholarly journal articles, most of them moderately conservative.
- LOCAL Bible Maps. A page of direct links to good Bible-related maps online in various places.
- Simple Bible Atlas. Some sharp outline maps showing the locations of cities and boundaries.
- Bible Atlas Online. Excellent large full-color maps, similar to the ones in the Oxford Bible Atlas, prepared by Dr. Zaine Ridling.
- Nineteenth-Century Bible Atlas. Large high-quality maps by George Philip & Son, London, originally published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in the 1890's and often reproduced in older Bibles. Provided online by Greg Wolf.
- New Testament Gateway Maps. Links to many map sites (both good and bad) compiled by Mark Goodacre.
- LOCAL Gospel Parallels. Tables of parallels based upon Aland's Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum, with external links to the full text of the sections in the American Standard Version.
- Harmony of the Gospels. The arrangement of sections from Stevens and Burton's Harmony of the Gospels for Historical Study (1893), with full text in the KJV.
- The Synoptic Problem and Q. By Dr Mark Goodacre, University of Birmingham. Goodacre is an expert on the "Synoptic Problem," and his pages on the subject give links to almost everything on the web that is worth reading.
- The Synoptic Gospels in the Ancient Church: The Testimony to the Priority of Matthew's Gospel. By F. David Farnell, Associate Professor of New Testament at The Master's Seminary. An article from The Master's Seminary Journal 10/1 (Spring 1999) that argues against the Marcan priority hypothesis and the source-criticism based upon it.
- Matthean Priority/Authorship and Evangelicalism's Boundary. By Gary W. Derickson, Professor of Biblical Studies at Western Baptist College, Salem, Oregon. An article from The Master's Seminary Journal 14/1 (Spring 2003) that describes the bad effects of "experimentation with critical methodology" among evangelical scholars.
- LOCAL Bibliography of English Versions of the Bible. By Michael Marlowe.
- Hurst's Literature of Theology. — John Fletcher Hurst, Literature of Theology: A Classified Bibliography of Theological and General Religious Literature (New York: Hunt & Eaton, 1896). Very useful for finding important works published in the nineteenth century.
- TIC Talk. Bibliographic newsletter of the United Bible Societies. Annotated bibliographies on Bible translation, linguistics, and Biblical studies.
- Research Guide for Christianity at the Yale Divinity School Library. Helpful bibliographies.
- Research Guides by Don Meredith, Librarian at Harding University Graduate School of Religion. Annotated bibliographies in all areas of Biblical research.
The commentary links have been moved to here.
- Inspiration and Interpretation … Being an Answer to a Volume Entitled ‘Essays and Reviews’. By John William Burgon (Oxford: Parker, 1861).
- New Testament criticism; Its History and Results, by James A. M'Clymont (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1913). A patient and intelligent survey of 19th-century higher criticism written by a conservative.
- Is the Higher Criticism Scholarly? Clearly attested facts showing that the destructive 'assured results of modern scholarship' are indefensible. By Robert Dick Wilson, Professor of Semitic Philology in Princeton Theological Seminary (London: Marshall Brothers, 1922).
- The Bible and Modern Criticism, by Robert Anderson (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1905).
- Pseudo-criticism; Or, The Higher Criticism and Its Counterfeit, by Robert Anderson (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1904).
- Studies in the Book of Daniel: A Discussion of the Historical Questions, by Robert Dick Wilson (G. P Putnam's sons, 1917).
- Old Testament Introduction: General and Special, by John Howard Raven (New York: Revell, 1906). Consists mostly of conservative response to liberal criticism of the Old Testament books.
- A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament, by Robert Dick Wilson (Philadelphia: Sunday School Times, 1926). See also the same work in pdf files (minus chaps. 2 and 4) here.
- Prolegomena to the History of Israel. By Julius Wellhausen (1878). A landmark of liberal higher criticism. Argues that the Pentateuch is a composite of source material written and collected long after the days of Moses. Also here and here.
- A Survey of Biblical Criticism with Special Reference to the Gospels. By the Rev. Philip Carrington. Article from the Berkeley Divinity School Bulletin 170 (December, 1959). A good survey from a conservative perspective, by an Anglican bishop.
- The Bible and Modern Scholarship. By Frederic G. Kenyon (1948). Gives a good overview of higher-critical scholarship, with criticism of its excesses, from a basically conservative perspective.
- Internal Evidence for the Authenticity and Genuineness of St. John's Gospel. By Joseph B. Lightfoot (from his Biblical Essays, 1893).
- Articles on biblical criticism and hermeneutics. Here are a number of recent journal articles by conservative scholars, provided online by Robert I. Bradshaw. Note especially the article by Gordon J. Wenham, "The Date of Deuteronomy: linch-pin of Old Testament criticism" Part one and Part Two (1985).
- The Fundamentals. The famous collection of conservative articles published by the Bible Institute of Los Angeles in 1917, in reaction to the advance of modernism in the early twentieth century. See especially the articles on "Higher Criticism" from volume 1.
- Who Wrote The First 5 Books of the Bible? A collection of extracts from writings of Edward Young, Merrill Unger, William Green, Gleason Archer, and Oswald Allis.
- Short Essays in Biblical Criticism. Reprinted from the Christian Standard 1893-1904, by John William McGarvey, President of the College of the Bible, Lexington, Kentucky (Cincinnati: Standard Publishing Co., 1910). McGarvey's essays attack with wit and learning the rising tide of historical-critical method in Biblical scholarship at the end of the nineteenth century. This book is online at the excellent Restoration Movement Texts pages provided by Dr. Hans Rollmann at the Memorial University of Newfoundland.
- The Authorship of the Book of Deuteronomy with its Bearings on the Higher Criticism of the Pentateuch. By Dr. John William McGarvey (1902). A book-length study defending the Mosaic authorship.
- Biblical Criticism. A good collection of articles from recent evangelical reference works, compiled by Greg Williamson in North Carolina. The articles describe and critique various "critical" approaches to Biblical research, including source criticism, form criticism, redaction criticism, etc.
- Evangelical Responses to the Jesus Seminar. By Robert L. Thomas, Professor of New Testament at The Master's Seminary. An article from The Master's Seminary Journal 7/1 (Spring 1996) 75-105. "The evangelical community has reacted strongly against the pronouncements of the Jesus Seminar because of that group's rejection of many historical aspects of the gospels ... Yet most of these responses come from those who utilize the same methodology in gospel study as do the Jesus Seminar personnel."
- Evangelicals and Biblical Criticism: The Continuing Saga. By John Warwick Montgomery. Article from the Global Journal of Classical Theology 2/1 (Dec. 1999).
- Why Has God Incarnate Suddenly Become Mythical? By John Warwick Montgomery. An excerpt from Perspectives on Evangelical Theology (1979).
- The Journal of Higher Criticism. A liberal online journal, "initiated in 1994 as a forthright attempt — in a time of scholarly neo-conservatism — to hark back to the bold historical hypotheses and critical interpretations associated with the great names of F. C. Baur and Tübingen."
- Why Liberals Didn't Understand Passion Play 2000. By Craig A. Parton. An essay written in 2001, describing the attempts of liberals to subvert the Oberammergau Passion Play. "Liberal theologians were hard at work trying to get those who attended Passion Play 2000 to listen to their voice rather than to the simple words of the Gospels uttered at Oberammergau." Published in the Global Journal of Classical Theology 4/1 (Feb 2004).
- A Critique of Richard E. Friedman's Who Wrote the Bible? By Dr. Gleason L. Archer, Jr., professor of Old Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. Archer presents several arguments against liberal source-criticism of the Pentateuch.
- The Historical Critical Method of Bible Interpretation. By Siegbert Becker. An explanation and examination of the Historical Critical method of interpreting Scripture and its effects on the Lutheran Church.
- Why the Historical-Critical Method of Interpreting Scripture is Incompatible with Confessional Lutheranism. By John F. Brug. This essay deals with some of the differences between the historical critical and the historical grammatical methods of interpretation. Attention is given to developments within ELCA and LCMS.
- Pernicious Presuppositions of the Historical-Critical Method of Bible Interpretation. By Heinrich J. Vogel. An essay describing the method, errors and dangers of historical-critical interpretation of the Bible.
- The Development of the Idea of Canonical Pseudepigrapha in New Testament Criticism. By Donald Guthrie. An article from Vox Evangelica 1 (1962), pp. 43-59. Some liberal scholars have denied the apostolic authorship of New Testament epistles while pretending to uphold their canonical authority. Guthrie examines the history of these attempts to develop an idea of 'canonical pseudepigrapha.'