Appendix 1

The Principal Manuscripts and Versions of the Greek Bible
(with the symbols by which they are known)


א or S. Codex [1] Sinaiticus, 4th cent.; 43 leaves at Leipzig, 3 fragments at Leningrad, and 199 leaves in the British Museum. Discovered by Tischendorf in the monastery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai, 1844 and 1859; at St. Petersburg, 1859-1933. Contains fragments of Gen. xxiii. and xxiv. and of Num. v.-vii., I Chr. ix.27-xix.17, 2 Esd. ix.9-end, Esth., Tob., Jud., I and 4 Macc., Isa., Jer., Lam. i.1-ii.20, Joel, Obad., Jon., Nah., Hab., Zeph., Hag., Zech., Mal., Psalms, Prov., Eccles., Cant., Wisd., Ecclus., Job (besides whole N.T. on 148 leaves, see below). Many corrections, some said to have been taken from a manuscript (at Caesarea?) corrected by Pamphilus. Four columns to the page (2 in the poetical books).

A., Codex Alexandrinus, 5th cent., in British Museum; complete (O.T. and N.T.), except for loss of Ps. xlix.19-lxxix.10 and a few verses in Gen. xiv.-xvi. and 1 Kings xii.-xiv.; 3 and 4 Macc. are included. Presented by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I in 1627, and transferred by George II to British Museum in 1757. Two columns to the page.

B. Codex Vaticanus, 4th cent., in Vatican Library since at least 1481; complete (O.T. and N.T.), except for loss of Gen. i.1-xlvi. 28, Ps. cv.27-cxxxvii.6, and a few verses of 2 Sam. ii. Macc. was never included. Three columns to the page.

C. Codex Ephraemi, 5th cent.; 64 palimpsest leaves of O.T. (with 145 of N.T.), in Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. Contains portions of Job, Prov., Eccles., Wisdom, Ecclus., Cant. One column to the page.

D. Cotton Genesis, 5th cent., with illustrations, in British Museum. Acquired by Sir R. Cotton; almost wholly destroyed by fire in 1731, but text known from collations made previously.

E. Bodleian Genesis, 10th cent., at Oxford; continued in minuscule manuscripts at Leningrad and the British Museum.

F. Codex Ambrosianus, 5th cent., in Ambrosian Library at Milan. Contains Gen. xxxi.15-Jos. xii.12. Three columns to the page.

G. Codex Sarravianus, 5th cent.; 130 leaves at Leyden, 22 at Paris, 1 at Leningrad. Contains portions of Pentateuch, Jos. and Judges, in text of Origen's Hexapla, with Origen's marks of additions and omissions, but only imperfectly. Two columns to the page.

Q. Codex Marchalianus, 6th cent., in Vatican Library. Contains the Prophets, with Hexaplar readings and Origen's marks added in the margin. One column to the page.

O. Washington Codex, 6th cent., in Freer Museum at Washington. Contains Deut. and Jos., except for loss of Deut. v.16-vi.18 and Jos. iii.3-iv.10. Originally contained all Hexateuch, perhaps Octateuch. Two columns to the page.

911. Berlin Papyrus, 4th cent., in Staatsbibliothek at Berlin. Contains portions of Gen. i.16-xxv.8. One column to the page.

961. Chester Beatty Papyrus IV, 4th cent. Contains Gen. ix.1-xv.14, xvii.7-xliv.22, with mutilations. Two columns to the page.

962. Chester Beatty Papyrus V, late 3rd cent. Contains Gen. viii.13-ix.1, xxiv.13-xxv.21, xxx.24-xxxv.16, xxxix.4-xlvi.33, with mutilations. One column to the page.

963. Chester Beatty Papyrus VI, early 2nd cent. Contains portions of Num. v.12-viii.19, xiii, xxv.5-xxxvi.13, Deut. i.20-xii.17, xviii, xix, xxvii.6-xxxiv.12. Two columns to the page.

967, 968. Chester Beatty Papyri IX, X, early 3rd cent. Contains. Ezek. xi.25-xxxix.29, Dan. iii.72-viii.27, Esther ii.20-viii.6, with considerable lacunae. Ezek. is by a different scribe. Dan. is the version of Septuagint, elsewhere only preserved in Codex Chisianus.



(a) Old Latin, 2nd cent.; fragments only, except of Apocrypha (but greater part of Gen.-Judges in Lyons Heptateuch).

(b) Vulgate, late 4th cent.; Psalter (in two versions, known as Roman and Gallican) and Job translated by Jerome from Septuagint, and all the books of the Hebrew Canon from Hebrew. Principal manuscripts, codices Turonensis (Gen. Num., 6th-7th cent.), Ottobonianus (Gen.-Judges, 7th cent.),. Amiatinus (O.T., early 8th cent.), Cavensis (O.T., 9th cent.), Theodulfianus (O.T., 9th cent.), Vallicellianus (O.T., 9th. cent.).


(a) Peshitta, early 5th cent.

(b) Syro-Hexaplar, a Syriac translation, made about A.D. 616, by Paul of Tella, of Origen's edition of the Septuagint in his Hexapla, with Origen's marks. The principal authority for Origen's work.


(a) Sahidic, 2nd and 3rd cent.; complete manuscripts of Lev.,. Num., Deut., 1 and 2 Sam., Psa., Isaiah, Jonah; considerable portions of poetical books; fragments of others.

(b) Bohairic, 3rd-4th cent.; Pentateuch, Prophets, Psalms, Job.


א. Codex Sinaiticus, 4th cent.; see above. N.T. on 148 leaves, complete, with Epistle of Barnabas and Shepherd of Hermas, Vis. i.1-Mand. iv.6.

A. Codex Alexandrinus, 5th cent.; see above. N.T., with Epistles of Clement (2 Clem. incomplete) and Psalms of Solomon (lost) at end; Mt. i.1-xxv. 6, Jn. vi.50-viii.52, 2 Cor. iv.13-xii.6, I Clem. lvii.7-lxiii.4, 2 Clem. xii.5 to end, missing.

B. Codex Vaticanus, 4th cent.; see above. N.T. imperfect at end, lacking Heb. ix.14 to end, Pastoral Epistles, and Revelation.

C. Codex Ephraemi, 5th cent.; see above. 145 leaves of N.T. (out of original 238), including portions of every book except 2 Thess. and 2 John, but none complete.

D. Codex Bezae, 5th cent. (?), in Cambridge University Library (presented by Theodore Beza in 1581). Contained Gospels, Acts, and Catholic Epistles, but Acts xxii. 29-end and all Cath. except 3 Jn. 11-15 are lost, with other mutilations. A Graeco-Latin manuscript with Greek and Latin on opposite pages. Text written in sense-lines.

D2. Codex Claromontanus, 6th cent., in Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. Belonged (like D) to Beza. Contains Pauline Epistles. Graeco-Latin manuscript, with text in sense-lines.

E2. Codex Laudianus, 7th cent., in Bodleian Library at Oxford (presented by Laud in 1636). Graeco-Latin manuscript of Acts, with Latin and Greek (in that order) on opposite pages, in very short sense-lines. Used by Bede.

W. Codex Washingtonensis, late 4th or 5th cent., in Freer Museum at Washington. Contains Gospels.

O. Codex Koridethianus, 9th cent. (?), at Tiflis. Contains Gospels.

046. Codex Vaticanus 2066, 8th cent., sometimes known as B2. Contains Revelation, and is the head of a large group of minuscule manuscripts of that book.

P45. Chester Beatty Papyrus I, early 3rd cent. Portions of 30 leaves, out of original 110, of papyrus codex of Gospels and Acts.

P46. Chester Beatty Papyrus II, early 3rd cent. 86 leaves (56 in Beatty collection in London, 30 at University of Michigan) out of original 104, of papyrus codex of Pauline Epistles. Pastoral Epp. apparently not included, and 2 Thess. lost, with Rom. i.1-v.17 and other mutilations.

P47. Chester Beatty Papyrus III, late 3rd cent. 10 leaves, out of original 32, of papyrus codex of Revelation. Contains Rev. ix.10-xvii.2, with mutilations.

Family 1. The group of minuscules known by the numbers 1, 118, 131, 209.

Family 13. The group of minuscules known by the numbers 13, 69, 124, 346; to which 211, 543, 713, 788, 826, 828 have affinities.

Minuscule 33, 9th cent., in Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. A minuscule of Gospels, Acts and Epistles with a very good text, akin to that of B.

Minuscule 81, A.D. 1044, in British Museum. Contains Acts, in a very good text.



(a) Old Latin, 2nd cent. Two main classes, known as (i) African, represented chiefly by the manuscripts k, e, m (Speculum) and quotations in Cyprian and Priscillian, (ii) European, represented chiefly by the manuscripts a, b and many others, but with considerable divergences among themselves.

(b) Vulgate, made by Jerome, A.D. 382-4. The Gospels revised from O.L., with reference to Greek manuscripts mainly of Alexandrian type; other books much more slightly revised. Principal manuscripts, Amiatinus, Cavensis, Fuldensis, Sangermanensis, Lindisfarnensis, Vallicellianus.


(a) Old Syriac, 2nd cent. Represented only by two imperfect manuscripts of the Gospels, the Sinaitic (4th or 5th cent.) and the Curetonian (5th cent.).

(b) Peshitta, made by Rabbula, about A.D. 411. The accepted version of the Syrian Church. Complete N.T., except 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation, which the Syrian Church did not accept. Many manuscripts, from 5th cent. onwards.


(a) Sahidic, 2nd-3rd cent. Complete manuscripts of John, Acts, Revelation, and many fragments, covering whole N.T., 4th-5th cent., with complete copies of most books, 9th cent. and later.

(b) Bohairic, 3rd-4th cent. The accepted version of the Coptic Church. Many manuscripts, from A.D. 889 onwards.


The most important patristic quotations are those in Irenaeus (c. 135-202), Clement of Alexandria (c. 155-220), Origen (c. 185-253), Tertullian (c. 150-220), Hippolytus (fl. c. 220), Cyprian (c. 200-258), Eusebius (c. 270-340), Aphraates (Syrian, fl. c. 340), Ephraem (Syrian, ob. 378), Chrysostom (c. 347-407), Jerome (c. 345-420), Augustine (354-430), Priscillian (ob. 385).

1. The term Codex means a manuscript in modern book form of quires and pages as opposed to a roll, but it is in practice specially applied to old uncial manuscripts, particularly of the Bible.