Epiphanius (about A.D. 385).

Epiphanius was bishop of Salamis (isle of Cyprus) from 367 to 402. His list of canonical books is given in his major treatise against heresies, the Panarion (Πανάριον "Medicine Chest"), also known by its Latin name Adversus Haereses ("Against Heresies").

From the Panarion viii. 6.

English translation from The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I (Sects 1-46): Translated by Frank Williams (Leiden: Brill, 1994), p. 26.

Ἔσχον δὲ οὗτοι οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἄχρι τῆς ἀπὸ Βαβυλῶνος αἰχμαλωσίας ἐπανόδου βίβλους τε καὶ προφήτας τούτους καὶ προφητῶν βίβλους ταύτας· πρώτην μὲν Γένεσιν, δευτέραν Ἔξοδον, τρίτην Λευιτικὸν, τετάρτην Ἀριθμοὺς, πέμπτην ∆ευτερονόμιον, ἕκτη βίβλος Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναυῆ, ἑβδόμη τῶν Κριτῶν, ὀγδόη τῆς Ῥοὺθ, ἐνάτη τοῦ Ἰὼβ, δεκάτη τὸ Ψαλτήριον, ἑνδεκάτη Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος, δωδεκάτη Ἐκκλησιαστὴς, τρισκαιδεκάτη τὸ ᾆσμα τῶν ᾀσμάτων, τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτη τῶν Βασιλειῶν πρώτη, πεντεκαιδεκάτη Βασιλειῶν δευτέρα, ἑκκαιδεκάτη Βασιλειῶν τρίτη, ἑπτακαιδεκάτη Βασιλειῶν τετάρτη, ὀκτωκαιδεκάτη Παραλειπομένων πρώτη, ἐννεακαιδεκάτη Παραλειπομένων δευτέρα, εἰκοστὴ τὸ ∆ωδεκαπρόφητον, εἰκοστὴ πρώτη Ἠσαΐας ὁ προφήτης, εἰκοστὴ δευτέρα Ἰερεμίας μετὰ τῶν Θρήνων καὶ ἐπιστολῶν αὐτοῦ τε καὶ τοῦ Βαροὺχ, εἰκοστὴ τρίτη Ἰεζεκιὴλ ὁ προφήτης, εἰκοστὴ τετάρτη ∆ανιὴλ ὁ προφήτης, εἰκοστὴ πέμπτη Ἔσδρας α, εἰκοστὴ ἕκτη Ἔσδρας β, εἰκοστὴ ἑβδόμη Ἐσθήρ. αὗταί εἰσιν αἱ εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ βίβλοι αἱ ἐκ θεοῦ δοθεῖσαι τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις, εἴκοσι δύο δέ εἰσι ὡς τὰ παρ' αὐτοῖς στοιχεῖα τῶν Ἑβραϊκῶν γραμμάτων ἀριθμούμεναι διὰ τὸ διπλοῦσθαι δέκα βίβλους εἰς πέντε λεγομένας. περὶ τούτου δὲ ἄλλῃ που σαφῶς εἰρήκαμεν. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἄλλαι παρ' αὐτοῖς δύο βίβλοι ἐν ἀμφιλέκτῳ ἡ Σοφία τοῦ Σιρὰχ καὶ ἡ τοῦ Σολομῶντος, χωρὶς ἄλλων τινῶν βιβλίων ἐναποκρύφων. πᾶσαι δὲ αὗται αἱ ἱεραὶ βίβλοι τὸν Ἰουδαϊσμὸν ἐδίδασκον καὶ τὰ τοῦ νόμου φυλάγματα ἕως τῆς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ παρουσίας.

By the time of the captives' return from Babylon these Jews had acquired the following books and prophets, and the following books of the prophets: 1. Genesis. 2. Exodus. 3. Leviticus. 4. Numbers. 5. Deuteronomy. 6. The Book of Joshua the son of Nun. 7. The Book of the Judges. 8. Ruth. 9. Job. 10. The Psalter. 11. The Proverbs of Solomon. 12. Ecclesiastes. 13. The Song of Songs. 14. The First Book of Kings. 15. The Second Book of Kings. 16. The Third Book of Kings. 17. The Fourth Book of Kings. 1 18. The First Book of Chronicles. 19. The Second Book of Chronicles. 20. The Book of the Twelve Prophets. 21. The Prophet Isaiah. 22. The Prophet Jeremiah, with the Lamentations and the Epistles of Jeremiah and Baruch. 23. The Prophet Ezekiel. 24. The Prophet Daniel. 25. I Ezra. 26. II Ezra. 2 27. Esther. These are the twenty-seven books given the Jews by God. They are counted as twenty-two, however, like the letters of their Hebrew alphabet, because ten books which (Jews) reckon as five are double. But I have explained this clearly elsewhere. And they have two more books of disputed canonicity, the Wisdom of Sirach and the Wisdom of Solomon, apart from certain other apocrypha. All these sacred books taught (them) Judaism and Law's observances till the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

From the Panarion lxxvi. 5.

Greek text from Westcott, General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (London, 1870). English translation from F.F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (InterVarsity Press, 1988), p. 213.

Εἰ γὰρ ἦς ἐξ ἁγίου πνεύματος γεγεννημένος καὶ προφήταις καὶ ἀποστόλοις μεμαθητευμένος, ἔδει σε διελθόντα ἀπ' ἀρχῆς γενέσεως κόσμου ἄχρι τῶν Ἐσθὴρ χρόνων ἐν εἴκοσι καὶ ἑπτὰ βίβλοις παλαιᾶς διαθήκης, εἴκοσι δύο ἀριθμουμένοις, τέτταρσι δὲ ἁγίοις εὐαγγελίοις, καὶ ἐν τεσσαρσικαίδεκα ἐπιστολαῖς τοῦ ἁγίου ἀποστόλου Παύλου, καὶ ἐν ταῖς πρὸ τούτων, καὶ σὺν ταῖς ἐν τοῖς αὐτῶν χρόνοις Πράξεσι τῶν ἀποστόλων, καθολικαῖς ἐπιστολαῖς Ἰακώβου καὶ Πέτρου καὶ Ἰωάννου καὶ Ἰούδα, καὶ ἐν τῇ τοῦ Ἰωάννου Ἀποκαλύψει, ἔν τε ταῖς Σοφίαις, Σολομῶντός τέ φημι καὶ υἱοῦ Σιράχ, καὶ πάσαις ἁπλῶς γραφαῖς θείαις ...

If you 3 had been begotten by the Holy Spirit and instructed in the prophets and apostles, you must have gone through (the record) from the beginning of the genesis of the world until the times of Esther in twenty-seven books of the Old Testament, which are (also) numbered as twenty-two, also in the four holy Gospels, and in fourteen epistles of the holy apostle Paul, and in the writings which come before these, 4 including the Acts of the Apostles in their times and the catholic epistles of James, Peter, John and Jude, and in the Revelation of John, and in the Wisdom books, I mean those of Solomon and of the son of Sirach 5 — in short, all the divine writings. . .


1. "First Kings, Second Kings, Third Kings, Fourth Kings," refers to the books we call First and Second Samuel and First and Second Kings.

2. "II Ezra" here refers to the book we call Nehemiah.

3. The rhetorical address is to the Arian writer Aetius.

4. the words "and in the writings which come before these" represent a clause of doubtful meaning in the Greek. Bruce explains that it refers to "the arrangement by which Acts and the catholic epistles precede the Pauline epistles" in some complete manuscripts of the New Testament.

5. "Wisdom books, I mean those of Solomon and of the son of Sirach" refers to the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus