Lachmann, 1831. Karl Lachmann, Novum Testamentum Græce, ex recensione Caroli Lachmanni. Berolini, 1831.

Lachmann's first edition, which entirely lacked Prolegomena, and merely referred the reader to the prospectus Lachmann had published in a German periodical the previous year (Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1830, pages 817-845). Lachmann's Greek text was constructed on a simpler method than that of Griesbach, although with a less ambitious aim: his stated purpose was to reconstruct the text current in the fourth century, without claiming to present the "original" and without attempting to explain the evidence of later manuscripts. In doing this, he consulted collations of a small number of the oldest manuscripts, and the citations of Origen and Ireneaus, and simply chose the readings of the majority of these, without any regard for the later copies. Where his chosen authorities were evenly balanced, he employed Latin witnesses to decide the issue. He did not employ theories of recensions or rules of "internal" evidence (see Wettstein 1730, Bengel 1742, Griesbach 1796), but based his decisions solely on manuscript data.

Because the oldest manuscripts chosen by Lachmann correspond to Griesbach's "Alexandrian" group, Lachmann's text may be seen as a useful contribution toward the reconstruction of the earliest Alexandrian text, but Lachmann himself rejected the idea of grouping manuscripts in this manner. His text was welcomed by those who felt that Griesbach had not sufficiently devalued the Received Text, but widely criticized for the narrow range of witnesses it represented. Tregelles, who very fully describes the editions of Lachmann in his Account of the Printed Text (pp. 97-115), especially questions the neglect of the Syriac and Coptic versions and the citations of other early ecclesiastical writers, and also points out that the collations used by Lachmann were inadequate for his purpose. The range of witnesses employed was widened somewhat in Lachmann's second edition (see Lachmann 1842).

Lachmann, 1842. Karl Lachmann, Testamentum Novum Græce et Latine Carolus Lachmannus recensuit. Philippus Butmannus, Ph. F. Græcæ Lectionis Auctoritatis, apposuit. Berolini, 1842, 1850. 2 vols.

Lachmann's second edition, which includes a Preface describing his method, a critically revised Latin Vulgate (based upon collations of two manuscripts of the sixth century), and annotations to the Greek text (supplied by Philip Butmann the younger) indicating the manuscript authority for the readings adopted. The text is not the same as the first edition, but revised on a wider basis of authorities and with more weight given to Latin witnesses. The readings of this edition, with the marginal readings also, are collated against Estienne 1550 in the appendix of Tregelles 1854. They are collated without the margin in Newberry 1877 and Scrivener and Nestle 1906.

The following is a paraphrase of the six rules of documentary evidence set forth rather obscurely by Lachmann in his Preface:

  1. The text is best established where all authorities agree.
  2. The text is somewhat doubtful where some of the authorities are defective.
  3. The text is well established where authorities of different regions agree.
  4. The text is doubtful where authorities of different regions disagree.
  5. The text is very doubtful where authorities of one region uniformly display a reading different from a reading uniformly displayed in another region.
  6. When the text is doubtful or very doubtful by reason of the situation described in 4 or 5, then the reading which is most uniformly displayed in its region should be preferred.

Lake, 1900. Kirsopp Lake, The Text of the New Testament. New York: Edwin S. Gorham, 1900. 6th edition, revised by Silva Lake, London: Rivingtons, 1928.

Lake, 1911. Kirsopp Lake, Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus, the New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. Oxford, 1911 (New Testament), 1922 (Old Testament). 2 vols.

A photographic facsimile of Codex Sinaiticus, with an Introduction by Kirsopp Lake.

Lange, 1868. John Peter Lange, Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletic. New York: Charles Scribner & Co., 1868. Reprinted by Zondervan in 1950.

This is a 24-volume set (10 New Testament volumes) translated from German into English by Philip Schaff and others. Schaff represents Lange's Luther Bible with the King James version by agreement with Lange, and so Lange's critical notes are revised to fit the English text. The result is the most thoroughly annotated edition of the King James version ever to be published, with three or four various readings in each chapter. The notes contain actual Greek readings while the English translation of these readings are inserted into the text in brackets. Each textual note cites supporting manuscripts, editors, and translators.

Laurence, 1814. Richard Laurence, Remarks upon the Systematic Classification of Manuscripts adopted by Griesbach in his Edition of the New Testament. Oxford and London, 1814.

In this book Laurence "very fully demonstrated that the final judgment of that critic [i.e. of Griesbach, when he admitted that Alexandrian and Western witnesses cannot be distinguished in practice], had been the correct one" (Tregelles 1854, page 91).

Legg, 1935. S.C.E. Legg, Novum Testamentum graece secundum textum Westcotto-Hortianum; Evangelium Secundum Marcum, cum apparatu critico nouo plenissimo, lectionibus codicum nuper repertorum additis, editionibus versionum antiquarum et patrum ecclesiasticorum denuo inuestigatis. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1935.

Legg's apparatus is the most complete source of information for Mark. The collation base text is that of Westcott and Hort 1881.

Legg, 1940. S.C.E. Legg, Novum Testamentum Graece . . . Evangelium Secundum Mattaeum. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.

Legg's apparatus is the most complete source of information for Matthew. The collation base text is that of Westcott and Hort 1881.

Lloyd, 1828. Charles Lloyd, H KAINH DIAQHKH. Novum Testamentum. Accedunt Parallela S. Scripturae Loca, necnon Vetus Capitulorum Notatio, et Canones Eusebii. Oxonii: e Typographeo Clarendoniano, 1828; Editio altera, 1830.

This reprint of Mill's text (see Mill 1707) was throughout the nineteenth century widely used as a student's manual edition, and was sometimes employed as a collation base. A corrected reprint was issued in 1889 (see Sanday 1889).

Long, 1709. Jacques Le Long, Bibliotheca Sacra in binos syllabos distincta, &c. Paris, 1709; 2nd ed. (with additions by C.F. Boerner) Leipsic, 1709; 3rd ed. Paris, 1723. 2 vols.